Phrenological bust by LN FowlerPhrenological bust by LN FowlerThe History of Phrenology on the Web

by John van Wyhe

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Ackerknecht, Erwin H., 'Gall', Neue Deutsche Biographie. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot 1953, vol. 6, p. 42. An important resource with Gall's geneology and an excellent bibliography of early German sources- although all available in the present bibliography.

Biographie des hommes vivants. Paris, 1817. vol. 3, p. 200. Gall.

Bruyères, H. La phrénologie. Paris, 1847. By the step-son of Spurzheim. Contains brief biographical notices of Gall and Spurzheim and an engraving of Spurzheim which Bruyères claims is very accurate in representing Spurzheim's posture and mien.

Capen, Nahum, 'A Biography of the Author' preface to Spurzheim's Phrenology, in connexion with the Study of Phrenology. 3rd American ed. 1836. The most complete biography of Spurzheim- heavy on his last weeks in USA.

Capen, Nahum, Reminiscences of Dr. Spurzheim and George Combe: and a review of the science of phrenology, from the period of its discovery by Dr. Gall, to the time of the visit of George Combe to the United States, 1838, 1840. New York: Fowler & Wells, 1881. -Spurzheim bio begins in 1818. mostly his time in USA.

Carmichael, A., A Memoir of the life and philosophy of Spurzheim. Dublin, 1833.

Combe, Andrew., 'Phrenology-Its Nature and Abuses: An Address to the Students of Anderson's University, at the opening of Dr Weir's first course of lectures on Phrenology in that institution. Jan. 7, 1846.' Edinburgh, 1846.

Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, 1997. (available on CD-ROM) For George and Andrew Combe, Elliotson, Epps, H.C. Watson, C. Bray, R. Macnish, A. Bain, R. Cobden, J. Duncan, T.I.M. Forster, G.S. Mackenzie, A.R. Wallace and many other phrenologists and anti-phrenologists.

Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York, 1970-76. For Gall (by Young) and Spurzheim (by Walsh) et al.

Epps, John, Diary of John Epps, edited by his widow, 1875.

Fossati, G.A., 'Gall' in Hoefer, ed., Nouvelle Biographie générele. Paris, 1833.

Fossati, G.A., 'Gall' in Nouvelle Biographie Générale. Paris, 1857, vol. XIX, pp. 271-283. Fossati was a long-time friend of Gall's and his biography is particularly useful for a representation of Gall's personality and habits.

Fossati, G.A., 'Gall', in Dictionnaire de la Conversation et de la Lecture. Paris: Belin-Mandar, 1832, v. 29, pp. 298-304.

Fowler, Jessie, A., Life of Dr. François Joseph Gall, Craniologist and founder of phrenology. London, New York, 2nd ed. 1896.

Fowler, Jessie, A., Gall's Life. New York, 1885.

Froriep, August, Die Lehren F. J. Galls. Leipzig, 1911(?).

Gibbon, Charles, The Life of George Combe: Author of "The Constitution of Man." 2 vols. London, 1878. Indispensable biography of Combe with many extracts from correspondence. (Available at this site volume 1 & volume 2)

Goyder, David, G., My Battle for Life: The Autobiography of a Phrenologist. 1857.

Heintel, Helmut, ed., Leben und Werk von Franz Joseph Gall. Eine Chronik. Würzburg, 1986.

Hollander, B., The Unknown Life and Works of Dr. Francis Joseph Gall. London, 1909.

Kemble, Fanny, Record of a Girlhood, vol 1.1879, pp. 230-265. Personal reminiscences of the Combe brothers.

Möbius, Paul J., Franz Joseph Gall. idem Ausgewählte Werke, vol. 7, Leipzig, 1905.

Möbius, Paul J., 'Goethe und Gall', in Goethe. idem Ausgewählte Werke, vol. 3, part 2, Leipzig, 1903, pp. 211-260.

Moscati, "Biographical Paper on the Character and Phrenological Organization of Dr. Spurzheim 'London Phrenological Society', Lancet, 1832.

Schramm-Macdonald, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Leipzig, Duncker & Humbolt, 1875, vol. 8. 'Gall'.

Theile, F.W., 'Gall' in Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste... ed., J.S. Ersch & J.G. Gruber. Leipzig, J.F. Gleditsch, 1818, ff., section 1, part 52, pp. 400-413. An excellent account worth referring to.

Weir, William, 'Gall, Franz-Joseph,' Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography, vol. 2, 1857 [1881 edn], pp. 539-40.

Wells, Charlotte, Fowler, Some Account of the Life and Labours of Dr. François Joseph Gall: Founder of Phrenology and his disciple Dr. John Gaspar Spurzheim. London, 1896. (Sketches of Phrenological Biography Vol. 1).

Wyhe, John van, 'Johann Gaspar Spurzheim', Neue Deutsche Biographie, Munich, forthcoming.

Wyhe, John van, 'George Combe', The Dictionary of Nineteenth Century British Philosophers. Bristol, Thoemmes Press, 2002.

Wyhe, John van, 'The authority of human nature: the Schädellehre of Franz Joseph Gall', British Journal for the History of Science, March, 2002, pp. 17-42.

Wyhe, John van, Phrenology and the origins of Victorian scientific naturalism. Ashgate, 2004. (Amazon link)

Wyhe, John van, 'Was phrenology a reform science? Towards a new generalization for phrenology', History of Science, xlii, 2004, pp. 313-331.

Wyhe, John van, 'The diffusion of phrenology through public lecturing' in A. Fyfe and B. Lightman eds., Science in the marketplace: nineteenth-century sites and experiences. Chicago: University Press, 2007, pp. 60-96.

Wyhe, John van, 'Johan Gaspar Spurzheim' Neue Deutsche Biographie 2010, 24: 770-1.




Astore, William J., 'Observing God: Thomas Dick (1774-1857), evangelicalism and popular science in Victorian Britain and Antebellum America', Oxford University, PhD, 1995. Some attention to G. Combe and his correspondence with Dick.

Bynum, William Frederick , 'Time's Noblest Offspring: the problem of man in the British natural historical sciences, 1800-1863', PhD thesis Cambridge 1975. Has a chapter on phrenology. An impressive thesis.

Cooter, R., 'The Cultural Meaning of Popular Science: Phrenology and the Organization of Consent in Nineteenth-Century Britain.' Cambridge University PhD thesis 1978. Essentially the same as his book.


Part I the social topography and intellectual dimensions of early British Phrenology
chap 1 social sense from the cerebral well
4 sections
chap 2 the dissenting mode
4 sections
Part II the psycho-social construction of the phrenological faith
chap 3 G Combe and the constitution of modern man
4 sections
Part III nature's hegemony
chap 4 phrenologists abroad
3 sections
chap 5 secular methodism and the socialization o f knowledge: deference to nature
1 facets of appeal
2 liberation
3 the deception in simplicity
4 conclusion
Part IV phrenology in radical culture
chap 6 R Carlile and the creed of phrenology
5 sections
chap 7 standing socialism on its head
4 sections (4 reaction to Combean phrenology)

Dalton, Lisle Woodruff, "A Phrenologist's Millennium: Religion, Science and Progress in the Thought of Orson Squire Fowler." M. A. Thesis, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1994.

Dalton, Lisle Woodruff, 'Between the enlightenment and public protestantism: religion and the American phrenological movement' University Of California, Santa Barbara, PHD, 1998. Abstract: "Phrenology, the belief that personality, character, and aptitude can be read from the shape of the head, was much discussed and debated in Europe and the United States during the nineteenth century. In the United States phrenology spawned a substantial popular movement that peaked during the decades before the Civil War. In light of its subsequent and widespread reputation as a pseudoscience, the success of phrenology as a popular movement remains a substantial problem of historical interpretation. This dissertation addresses this problem by examining the religious dimensions of the movement. My main thesis is that the success of phrenology in the United States during the antebellum period was largely a function of its proponents' ability to promote an variant form of Enlightenment naturalism in ways amenable to the idioms and social perspectives of American public Protestantism. To support my argument, I explore elements of the Enlightenment that influenced the religious perspectives of the phrenological movement, trace the history of the movement in Europe and the United States, provide information on the cultural context of the popularization of phrenology in antebellum America, and discuss the various manifestations of public Protestantism in phrenological literature. My primary sources include the writings of influential European and American phrenologists and their critics.Secondary sources include historical studies of American religion, theoretical writings on popular religion, and scholarly treatments of phrenology from a variety of disciplines, including religious studies, the history of science, sociology, psychology, and philosophy."

de Giustino, David, 'Phrenology in Britain, 1815-1855: A Study of George Combe and his Circle.' University of Wisconsin PhD thesis, 1969. The same as his published book.

part I Constitution of man
chap 1 intro
chap 2 the new philosophy
chap3 phrenology's appeal a boon to the multitudes
chap 4 transmission and schism
chap 5 phrenology and the old religion
Part II remaking of Man
chap 6 reform in prisons
chap 7 reform in schools
1. philosophy of education
2. politics of education
chap 8 epilogue

Falkoff, Marc D., 'Heads And Tales: American Letters In The Age Of Phrenology'. Brandeis University, PhD, 1997. Abstract: "'Heads and Tales' is an examination of nineteenth-century American literature in the context of phrenology, the reigning psychology of the antebellum era. Its purpose is to widen the scope of interdisciplinary research in science and literature by attending to a representative 'pseudoscience' whose cultural importance has been neglected in literary studies of the era. Not unlike psychoanalysis, another disputed 'science of mind,' phrenology in its time received sustained interest from intellectuals, enjoyed widespread public acceptance, and was woven inextricably into the fabric of its culture; phrenology was arguably as constitutive of the nineteenth-century Zeitgeist as psychoanalysis has been to that of the twentieth. By examining a wide range of texts and authors--including Emerson's essays, Poe's stories, Hawthorne's novels, Whitman's poetry, and Fanny Fern's newspaper columns--alongside the technical treatises and popular pamphlets of this contested science, my study sketches out a series of complex literary reactions to phrenology. Adopting a 'cultural poetics' approach to the question of how the science interacted with the literature of the era, it treats the discourse of phrenology as a cultural 'text' which may profitably be appraised using the tools of literary analysis. This dissertation has been particularly influenced by the scholarship of Michel Foucault, and by his conjectures regarding the 'panoptic' and 'disciplinary' nature of modern society. In particular, it argues that phrenology--with its doctrine that character and intelligence were legible from the shape of one's head--should be considered the premier example of a panoptic technology, breeding self-discipline, self-normalization, and anxiety in antebellum American culture. Thus, whether the authors analyzed in this dissertation rebelled against the disciplinary implications of phrenological science (like Emerson, Hawthorne, and Fern) or embraced its claims to have explained scientifically the relation between man's material and spiritual halves (like Poe and Whitman), phrenology was a science which American writers found impossible to ignore. By bringing to light the unexpected ways in which they wrestled with the implications of the science, this dissertation thereby makes visible a phrenological pattern of thought in the era's literature which has until now remained hidden to modern readers."

Grant, Alastair Cameron, 'George Combe and His Circle: with particular reference to his relations with the United States of America', University of Edinburgh, 1960. Contents:

preface iii
note on portraits of combe v
early life 1
phrenologicial beginnings 10
1816-1826 16
combe and the london phrenologists 38
early battle: Jeffrey & Hamilton 45
Combe & Owen 55
Constitution of Man 71
1828-1837 99
Logic Chair 115
America Prelude 122
america as social and moral experiment
combe & ami slavery
combe and transcendentalism
combe and the church in america
america postscript
"secular" education
last years 266
appendix:[extracts from letters pertaining to]
combes religious belief
combes rejecction by edin soc
combe and social questions
combe and samuel george Morton's Craniana Americana
miscellaneous letters
extract from Noctes Ambrosianae

Hölzke, Gerhard Otto, Die medizinischen Lehren John Browns und Franz Joseph Galls.,in der dichterischen Darstellung August von Kotzebues. Diss. med. Jena, 1958.

Kim, David Young Jae, 'Heresy and the head : phrenology and the reconstruction of Christianity in George Combe's Constitution of man'. Harvard University, 1996. A.B. Thesis.

Kunz, Gerfried, 'Gustav von Struve und die Phrenologie in Deutschland', Mainz, Univ., Diss., 1994.

Nott, John William. "Science and Phrenology," in his 'The Artisan as Agitator: Richard Carlile, 1816-1893'. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1970, pp. 156-9.

Paulson, Dwight William, 'Phrenology, Horace Mann and educational reform' University Of Washington, EDD, 1993.

Abstract: "For over a hundred years the term 'phrenology' has been a by-word for pseudo-science. Yet during the first half of the 19th Century, phrenology, which taught that the brain was the organ of the mind, was considered a viable theory and applicable to education. Phrenology divided the brain into many individual faculties which shaped the skull. Phrenologists believed that one's abilities and character could be ascertained from examining the contours of the head. The voice of phrenology was the Fowler family of New York through their publication of the American Phrenological Journal (1838-1911). As phrenology expanded, the nation was passing through a period of change. Education was a key factor in this transformation with leaders like Horace Mann of Massachusetts contributing to the formation of the American common school system. As Secretary of the State Board of Education (1837-1848) his reforms were recorded in a series of famous yearly reports. This study examined the influence of phrenology on American educational reform. The focus was on the rapid development of phrenology, its role in shaping the policies of Horace Mann as published in his Twelve Annual Reports. A system of seven 'Indicators,' or special chosen subjects was drawn from the Journal and compared with Mann's Reports to denote his reliance on phrenology. These included: the use of common terminology, similar pedagogical principles, health practices, student discipline, view of women teachers, religion in school, and moral education. As a practitioner rather than a theorist, Mann found phrenology a useful approach in reforming education. He endorsed the concept of faculties and their development as a learning theory. Phrenology championed health reform and Mann agreed. He concurred with phrenology in calling for rational treatment of children, and removal of corporal punishment from the classroom. Both phrenology and Mann were progressive in their view of women as teachers. Lastly, Mann was in unity with phrenology in forbidding sectarian teaching in school, while striving to build strong student character. An analysis of the seven Indicators revealed that Mann based much of his educational philosophy and program on the tenets of phrenology."

Sorgel, Hans-Joachim, 'Franz Heinrich Martens in seiner Bedeutung im Streit um die Gall'sche Lehre'. Diss. med. Jena, 1956.

Spoerl, H. D. 'The Problem of Faculties in the Psychology of Character During the Nineteenth Century', Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1934.

Walsh, A., 'Johann Christoph Spurzheim and the Rise and Fall of Scientific Phrenology in Boston: 1832-1842', Ph.D. thesis, New Hampshire, 1974.

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
The Antecedents of Phrenology . . . . . . . . 11
The History and Character of
Physiognomical Thought . . . . . . 17
Brain and Mind to the Late 1700's . . . . . . 38
The Organological-psychological
Theory of Franz Joseph Gall . . . . . . . . 54
Gall on anatomy . . . . . . . . . 62
Gall and the behavioral sciences . . . . . . 72
Birth and Parentage: 1776-1799 . . . . . . . . 79
Spurzheim and Gall: 1800-1813 . . . . . . . . 85
Spurzheim, The Independent
Traveler: 1813-1832 . . . . . . . . . . 104
Spurzheim's private life . . . . . . . . . . 108
Spurzheim's professional
activities: 1814-June, 1832 . . . . . . . 115
Spurzheim as Others Saw Him . . . . . . . . . . 143
Negative opinions of Spurzheim . . . . . . . 146
Positive opinions of Spurzheim . . . . . . . 148
Spurzheim's Systematic Phrenology . . . . . . 155
Early revisions of Gall's system . . . . . . 158
Later additions to phrenological theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
IV. PHRENOLOGY IN AMERICA: 1800-1832 . . . . . . . 190
Benjamin Rush: An Early "Phrenologist" . . . . 192
The Medical Institution of Maine at
Bowdoin College, John D. Wells,
and Phrenology . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Phrenology in Philadelphia . . . . . . . . . . 208
Charles Caldwell (1772-1853):
The "American Spurzheim" ~ . . . . . . . . 236
The Constitution of Man and Other
American Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . 248 iv
OF HIS INFLUENCE AT AND AROUND 1832 . . . . . . 256
Spurzheim's Travels in America, 1832 . . . . . 261
Spurzheim's Lectures and Fateful Last
Days in Boston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
A Society Is Born: The Boston
Phrenological Society, Inc . . . . . . . . . 328
The Activities of the BPS:
The Early Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
The Middle Years . . . . . . . . 369
The BPS and "Scientific Phrenology" in
' Boston: The Declining Years, 1838
and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . 398
The Phrenological Collection . . . . . . . . . 421
Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
VII. OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Finis Coron at opus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46?
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
MENTAL FACULTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
AND CORTICAL LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
IN PSYCHOLOGY, THE 1960'S . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

Watson, Stephen. "Identification Techniques and the Science of 'physiognomy,' 11 in his "The Moral Imbecile: A Study of the Relations Between Penal Practice and Psychiatric Knowledge of the Habitual Offender," Ph.D. thesis, Lancaster, 1988, pp. 143-50.

Wrobel, Arthur, 'Walt Whitman and the Fowler Brothers: Phrenology finds a bard', Ph.D. thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1968.

Wyhe, John, van, 'Phrenology and the origins of naturalism in Britain 1800-1850'. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, 2001.


chapter 1: The authority of Nature: Gall's Schädellehre
chapter 2: Phrenology: made in Britain
chapter 3: Natural controversies
chapter 4: The authority to define man's constitution
chapter 5: The Receptions of The Constitution of Man
chapter 6: Epidemics of phrenological naturalism



Gall, F. J., Philosophisch-medicinische Untersuchungen über Natur und Kunst im gesunden und kranken Zustande des Menschen. 1 vol. Vienna, 1791. 2nd printing, Leipzig, 1800. Gall's first publication. Does not deal with his organological theories- but there are some hints of it. This was only the first volume of a projected two. The second was written but never published. The manuscript may still exist somewhere.

Gall, F. J., 'Schreiben über seinen bereits geendigten Prodromus über die Verrichtungen des Gehirns der Menschen und der Thiere an Herrn Jos. Fr. von Retzer', Der neue Teutsche Merkur, 3, Dec. 1798, pp. 311-332. First publication in Gall's words of his system. Reprinted in: Ludwig Friedrich Froriep, Darstellung der neuen, auf Untersuchungen der Verrichtungen des Gehirns gegründeten Theorie der Physiognornik des Herrn Dr. Gall in fhien. 3., sehr vertu. Aufl. Mit einem Kupfer. Vienna, Hochenleitter 1802. pp. 70-89; Ludwig Friedrich Froriep, Darstellug der neuen auf Untersuchungen der Verrichtungen des Gehirns gegründeten, Theorie der Physiognornik des Herrn Dr. Gall in Wien. 3., sehr verm. Aufl. Mit einem Kupfer. Vienna, 1802, pp. 65-84; Anon, Dr. Galls Darstellung des Gehirns als Organs der Seelenfähigkeiten und Gemüthseigenschaften. Nebst der Kunst das Innere des Menschen aus dem Aeußern seines Schädels zu erkennen. Ein Schreiben Villers an Cuvier. Uebersetzt mit vielen Bemerkungen, Zusätzen, Erweiterungen, und Galls eigner Nachricht an das Publikum vermehrt von einem Schüler Galls. Vienna & Leipzig: Schiegg, 1803. pp. 97-122; Erna Lesky, 1979, pp. 47-59. English translations of this letter can be found in: Gall, 1835, vol.1; Fowler Wells, 1896; David Goyder, My Battle for Life. The Autobiography of a Phrenologist. London, 1857; Nahum Capen, 1881, pp. 70-86; and in Paul Eling, ed., Reader in the History of Aphasia: from Gall to Geschwind. Amsterdam, Philadelphia, 1994, pp. 3-27, translated by Stella Roomans with an introduction by Claus Heeschen. French translations in Journal de la Société phrénologique de Paris, III, 1835, pp. 116-36; François Joseph Victor Broussais, Leçons de phrénologie. Dernière éd. Brussels, Société enycolphique des sciences médicales. 1839, pp. 479-496; Jean Antoine Laurent Fossati, Manuel pratique de Phrénologie ou physiologie du cerveau d'après les doctrines de Gall, de Spurzheim, de Comte et des autres phrénologistes. Paris, 1845; Fossati, Questions philosophiques, sociales et politiques traitées d'après les principes de la physiologie du cerveau. Paris, Amyot, 1869, pp. 287-302.

Gall, F. J. 'Vertheidigungsschrift des Dr. Med. Gall, eingegeben bey der nieder-österreichischen Landesregierung', reprinted in [Phil. Friedr. von] Walther, neue Darstellungen aus der Gall'schen Gehirn- und Schedellehre, als Erläuterungen der vorgedruckten Verteidigungsschrift des D. Gall eingegeben bei der niederösterreichischen Regierung. Mit einer Abhandlung über den Wahnsinn, die Pädagogik und die Physiologie des Gehirns nach der Gall'schen Theorie. München, b. Scherer (Fleischmann), 1804, pp. 1-50. An English trans. is: 'Petition and Remonstrance by Dr. Gall Against an order issued by Francis the First, Emperor of Germany, prohibiting him from delivering lectures on the functions of the brain, without special permission previously asked and obtained. Translated from the German.', G. Combe, trans. On the Functions of the Cerebellum. Edinburgh & London, 1838, pp. 309-35.

Gall, F. J., 'Briefe Galls an Professor Dr. Johann Gottlieb Walter nebst Antworten und Berichtungen', in Merkel, 'Dr. Gall und der Geheime-Rath Walter', Der Freimüthige oder Ernst und Scherz. 98, 17.5.1805, pp. 390-1, 99, 18.5.1805, pp. 393-395. Reprinted in Johan Gottlieb Walter, Etwas über Herrn Doctor Gall's Hirnschädel-Lehre. Berlin, 1805, pp. 26-28.

Gall, F. J., [A note to readers]. Der Freimüthige, 3, 101, 21.5.1805, p. 404.

Gall, F. J., "guide to my lectures" [Mentioned in Gall's Potsdam correspondence. Re-printed in: 'Original Letter by Gall [to Dr. Hoser of Vienna, 16 May 1805]--communicated to the Zoist by R. R. Noel', Zoist, 7, 1849, pp. 64-6.] (?)

[Gall, F. J.] Beantwortung der Ackermann'schen Beurtheilung und Wiederlegung der Gall'schen Hirn- Schedel- und Organenlehre, vom Gesichtspuncte der Erfahrung aus. Von einigen Schülern des Dr. Gall und von ihm selbst berichtigt. Halle, 1806 [actually appeared early 1807]. with plates. French trans. Examen critique de la réfutation de M. le docteur Ackermann, des erreurs de Gall sur la structure du cerveau, in anon, Cranologie, ou découvertes nouvelles du docteur F.J. Gall, concernant le cerveau, le crâne, et les organes. Paris, 1807, pp. 209-342.

Gall, F. J., 'Doktor Gall über Irrenanstalten', Allgemeine Zeitung, [Ulm. 10.], 1807. Nro. 21. Beilage, pp. 81-83. Gall first declares that insanity due to brain illness or defect.

Gall, F. J., Discours d'ouverture, lu... à la première séance de son cours public sur la physiologie du cerveau, le 15 janvier 1808 / par M. le Dr Gall. Paris : F. Didot, 1808.

Gall, F. J., Cranologie, on Deconvertes Nouvelles Concernant le Cerveau, le Crâne et les Organes. Paris, n.d. [?]

Gall, F. J., & Spurzheim, J.G., Recherches sur le système nerveux en général, et sur celui du cerveau en particulier; Mmoire pr sent l'Institut de France, le 14 mars, 1808; suivi d'observations sur le Rapport qui en t fait cette compagnie par ses Commissaires. Paris, 1809. Reprinted in Amsterdam 1967 by Bonset, Amsterdam. German trans. Untersuchungen ueber de Anatomie des Nervensystems ueberhaput, und des Gehirns insbesondere. Ein dem französischen Institute ueberreichtes Mémoire von Gall und Spurzheim. Nebst dem Berichte der H.H. Commissaire des Institutes und den Bemerkungen der Verfasser über diesen Bericht. Paris & Strasburg, 1809. Partially reprinted in Lesky, 1979, pp. 60, 62-66, 71-72, 159-60.

Gall, F. J., [Eigenhändige Eintragung Galls in das Stammbuch August Wilhelm Ifflands], in Anon, Auszug aus Iffland's Stammbuch, jener Denkschriften, welche Göthe, Herder, Wieland, Weiße, Klopstock, Archenholz, Abee Vogler, Gall, Tiedge, und Fridrich Schiller, aus dem Stegreife verfaßt, und in selbes eigenhändig eingetragen haben. [Vienna], 1809, p. 11. Original transcribed in Auktionskatalog 120 Antiquariat Karl Ernst Henrici. Berlin, 27-28.5.1927, p. 77.

Gall, F. J., & Spurzheim, J.K., Anatomie et physionomie du système nerveux en général et du cerveau en particulier . Premier volume. Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général et anatomie du cerveau en particulier . Paris, F. Schoell, 1810; Gall, F.J., & Spurzheim, J.G., vol 2, 1812; Gall, F.J., vol 3 , 1818; Gall, F.J., vol 4, 1819. And one volume atlas (1810) of 100 engravings [first & half of 2nd vols. only with Spurzheim]. Engravings partially reproduced in Struve & Hirschfeld, Atlas Illustrative ot the Doctrine of the Functions of the Brain (twelve plates of Gall's) with explanations in English, German and French. Heidelberg, C. Groos, 1844; and Williams, A Vindication of Phrenology. 1894. Italian trans. Bologne, 1835; partially reprinted in Lesky, 1979, pp. 60, 67-70, 73-77, 80-81, 120-122, 129, 155-158. Partial English trans. of vols 1-4 in Edwin Clarke and Charles Donald O'Malley, The Human Brain and spinal cord. A historical study illustrated by writings from antiquity to the twentieth century. Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1968, pp. 393-394, 476-480, 599-602, 826-827.

Gall, F. J., & Spurzheim, J.G., Des dispositions innées de l'âme et de l'esprit : du matérialisme, du fatalisme et de la liberté morale, avec des réflexions sur l'éducation et sur la législation criminelle Paris, 1811. pp. 397. Extracts from vols 1-2 of Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux to counter accusations of materialism.

Gall, F. J., & Spurzheim, 'Cerveau', Dictionaire des Sciences Medicales. vol. 4, Paris, 1813, pp. 447-9. Reprinted in Appendix to John Gordon, Observations on the Structure of the Brain, 1817, pp. 185-207.

Gall, F. J., & Spurzheim, 'Crâne', Dictionnaire des sciences médicales, vol. 7, Paris, 1813, pp. 260-266.

Gall, F. J., Demande pour être nommé membre de l'Académie Royale des Sciences. Paris, (privately printed) 1821. Part of Gall's unsuccessful attempt to become a member.

Gall, F. J., 'Observations sur les crânes humains', in Louis Choris, Voyage pittoresque autour du monde, avec des portraits de sauvages d'Amérique, d'Afrique, et de îles de Grand océan; des paysages, des vues maritimes, et plusieurs objets d'histoire naturelle; accompagné de descriptions par M. le baron Cuvier, et M.A. de Chamisso, et d'observations sur les crânes humains par M. le docteur Gall. Paris, 1822, pp. 16-17.

Gall, F. J., Sur les fonctions du cerveau et sur celles de chacune de ses parties. avec des observations sur la possibilité de reconnaitre les instincts, les penchans, les talens, ou les dispositions morales et intellectuelles des hommes et des animaux, par la configuration de leur cerveau et de leur tête. 6 vols. Paris: J. B. Baillire, 1822-25. Gall's Hauptwerk. The individual volumes are independently titled:
vol. 1 Sur l'origine des qualités morales et des facultés intellectuelles de l'homme : et sur les conditions de leur manifestation.
vol. 2 Sur l'organe des qualit s morales et des facults intellectuelles, et sur la pluralit des organes cr braux.
vol. 3 Influence du cerveau sur la forme du crne, difficult s et moyens de dterminer les qualit s et les facults fondamentales, et de d couvrir le sige de leurs organes. Exposition des qualit s et des facults fondamentales et de leur si ge, ou organologie.
vols. 4&5 Organologie ou exposition des instincts, des penchans, des sentimens et des talens, ou des qualits morales et des facult s intellectuelles fondamentales de l'homme et des animaux, et du sige de leurs organes.
vol. 6 Revue critique de quelques ouvrages anatomico-physiologiques, et exposition d'une nouvelle philosophie des qualit s morales et des facults intellectuelles.

English trans. On the functions of the Brain and of Each of Its Parts: with Observations on the Possibility of Determining the Instincts, Propensities, and Talents, or the Moral and Intellectual Dispositions of Men and Animals, by the Configuration of the Brain and Head, 6 vols., trans. Winslow Lewis, Jr. Marsh, Capen and Lyon, Boston, 1835. This translation is the most widely available of Gall's works in English and is consequently frequently cited. Also translated by E. Edmond Sheppard Symes, London, ca 1851 (but never published). Partial English translations from vols 1 & 2 in The Weekly Medico-Chururgical and Philosphical Magazine, 1, 1823, pp. 241-396, vol 2, 1823, pp. 2-168. Partial English trans. of vol 4 in The Phrenological Journal and Miscellany, 4, 1827, pp. 524-538. See also: On the Functions of the Brain Parts I and II of The Phrenological Library: On the Organ of the Moral Qualities and Intellectual Faculties and the Plurality of the Cerebral Organs. 2 vols, London: G. Berger & W Strange, [1844]. Pp. 185 & 219. Partial English trans. of vol 3, pp. 225-378 in George Combe, Dr. Gall on the functions of the brain... pp. 1-94. Partial English trans. of vol 2 On the organ of the moral qualities and intellectual faculties and the plurality of the cerebral organs. London, 1844. German trans.: Vollständige Geisteskunde, oder auf Erfahrung gestützte Darstellung der geistigen und moralischen Fähigkeiten und ihrer körperlichen Bedingungen. Ein unentbehrliches Handbuch für Erzieher, Aerzte..., die Menschenkenntniß nöthig haben. Freie Übersetzung der sechs Bände Gall's Organologie. Nürnberg, 1829 and reprinted 1833. Partial German trans. of vols 1 & 2 'Über Grundvermögen der Seele; Anatomische Beweise der Mehrheit der Seelen-Organe; Physiologische Beweise der Mehrheit der Seelen-Organe', Zeitschrift für Phrenologie. 1, 1843, pp. 120-135, 227-248, 349-377.

[Gall, F. J.,] 'Catalogue, Numerical and Discriptive, of Heads of Men and Animals, which composed the collection made by the late Dr. Gall. Transcribed by Mons. A. A. Royer, of the Jardin des Plantes, from the Manuscript drawn up by M. le Dr. Danncey, the pupil and friend of Dr. Gall', Phrenologcial Journal, 6, 1829/30, pp. 480-99, 583-602; and 7, 1831/2, pp. 27-36, 181-5, 250-3. A partial reconstruction of the catalogue (ignorant of this copy) is in Ackerknecht & Vallois, 1955;1956.

 Gall, Franz Joseph (1902), F. J. Gall über Goethe's Kopf [1827]. Frankfurter Zeitung, Nr. 170, pp. 2-3.



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