by John van Wyhe
PASTOR OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH IN BROOKLINE, NEAR BOSTON, U. S.
MACLAGHLAN & STEWART, EDINBURGH; SIMPKIN & MARSHALL, AND ORR, & SMITH, LONDON.
The fourth American edition of Mr Combe's work on " The Constitution of Man considered in relation to External Objects," published at Boston in 1835, contains " An additional Chapter on the Harmony between Phrenology and Revelation," by Joseph Warne, A.M. Pastor of the Baptist Church in Brookline, near Boston. The subject treated of in that chapter has of late excited much interest in the British islands ; and as Mr Warne's views have been considered valuable by several sincere friends to Science and Revelation in this country, they are now presented to the British public.
PRINTED BY NflHr, AND CO. OLD FISIIMARKET, EDINBURGH-.
THAT there does exist an harmonious connection between Scriptural Christianity and the Science of Phrenology, will not be questioned by those who believe that the former is of divine origin, and that the latter is true. For the God of Nature is the God of Revelation., and, of course, the works of his hand, and the revelation of his mind, must be in harmony with each other. Philosophical Christians, who have made Phrenology an object of their attention, have perceived this harmony, and have been delighted with the discovery ; and one among the strongest of their reasons for believing Phrenology to be true, is the perception of its accordance with Scripture, rightly interpreted.
Yet it must be acknowledged that these Christians have not been as anxious as they should have been, to make known their discoveries ; and to lead other minds to the participation of the pleasures of which they were themselves the subjects. They have either not promulgated from the press, or otherwise, the views into which they have been led ; or if they have, those views have been presented by them, rather as Philosophers than as Christians : the characteristic features of evangelical religion have been very sparingly introduced into their writings ; and consequently, those who hold evangelical Christianity in the estimation which is its due, have been afraid to look at Phrenology ; fearing that it had little which was in accordance with the -word of God,-that it was a system of Philosophy inimical to revelation ; and tending to Materialism, Fatalism, and Infidelity. A firm conviction that these fears are without foundation, has induced the writer to present a brief view of some important points of agreement between Phrenology and Scriptural Christianity ;
in the hope that the science of Phrenology may receive from the pious portion of the community a measure of their attention ; and that they may not yield the advantages connected with the study of that science to those, exclusively, who, being strangers to vital religion, must be insensible to some of the greatest beauties of the system which they highly admire, and loudly eulogize.
A portion of the communications which our Creator has made to us in his word, consists of truths which man never could have discovered by the unaided efforts of his own powers; and some of which, even now that they are revealed, he cannot fully comprehend. There is, however, another class, which have reference to ourselves, and the beings and things existing around us, and to the duties incumbent on us, towards those beings, and towards the Author of our existence,-a dim outline of which might be perceived by means of powers imparted to us by our Creator. (Rom. ii. 14, 16.)
Among things included in the former class, may be mentioned, whatever relates to the plurality of subsistences, or persons, in the Divine Nature ;-the union of the divine and human natures in the person of Christ;--the offices he sustains, and the work he performs, in man's redemption. Of course, on such subjects, Phrenology cannot be expected to cast any light ; and if any be furnished by the analogies which it affords, it is, at best, only that of illustration, proving them not absurd ; and not that of explanation, teaching us how they are. On the latter class of Scripture truths, however,-such as relate to human nature (as it is, and as it is required to become) and to human duty,-light may, perhaps, be cast by Phrenology. For the truths may be compared with human na-
4 ON THE HARMONY BETWEEN THE
turc, as Phrenology teaches us to observe it, in ourselves and others ; and if it is seen to harmonize, we shall have an additional reason for believing the divine origin of the Christian Scriptures ; (viz. their correspondence with nature) and a strong presumption in favour of Phrenology, (viz. its correspondence with divine revelation.)
Phrenology* presents man to us, as comprehending within his single self, the animal, and intellectual, and moral natures;-or it exhibits him as an animal, an intellectual, and a moral being. The peculiarities of his animal nature, or those impulses by which he is actuated, in common with the lower animals, Phrenology terms c Propensities ;'-the powers which constitute him an intelligent being, are termed ' Intellectual Faculties ; ' and those "which belong to his highest, or his moral nature, are called ' Moral Sentiments.' Perhaps nearly all of the powers and faculties which Phrenology ascribes to man, under this threefold classification, have been seen to exist in him. by those who wrote before that science was taught : but it is believed that to Phrenology belongs the honour of thus classifying his powers ; and all reflecting men to whom the classification is proposed, approve it, as philosophical and true. It was a great and valuable service, then, which Phrenology has performed, if it were the only one, that it has philosophically classified the powers of human nature. Rut in doing this, it has done more: it has, by this classification of the powers of human nature, analogically illustrated a truth of revelation, in a manner in which it was never before illustrated : a truth, too, belonging to the first great class of truths, which revelation makes known to us : those not originally discoverable by human powers, nor fully comprehensible by human capacity. Nothing can be plainer or more true to nature, than the distinction between the animal, the intellectual, and the moral nature of man ;-no one confounds them with each other ; and each perceives them all to exist in himself. Every man knows himself to be an animal being, an intellectual being, and a moral being ; yet no man can tell how these exist, distinctly, yet unitedly, in his single self; while, yet, he is conscious that they do thus exist. Now revelation tells us that God created man in his own image and likeness : and though it is true that this image is said to be ' righteousness and true holiness,' and that this was the most important point of resemblance, it is nowhere said to have been the, only one ; and might not this constitution of human nature be another adumbration of that image ? The New Testament clearly teaches a threefold personal distinction in the Divine Nature. By some, who profess to receive that holy volume, this distinction is rejected, as absurd. Its absurdity Ave deny ; and refer such persons to their own nature, not for an explanation in quo modo this thing is ; but as an illustration, proving that it is not absurd to conceive that it is : for, in our own nature we see what is analogous ; though we know, perfectly, that it is not parallel. Now as it is Phrenology which reveals to us that real and natural division of the elements of our own nature, which has furnished this illustration of a mysterious truth of revelation, it is plain that, so far at least. Phrenology and Revelation harmonize ; and that the friends of Revelation have no reason to fear that Phrenology is inimical to revealed religion.
But further : Revelation requires of man, a course of conduct exactly such as Phreno-logymarks out, as being in accordance with the laws of his nature. Phrenology teaches that the animal nature of man Avas designed by his Creator to be in subjection to the moral, and that the intellectual nature should enlighten the moral, so that it might command intelligently. In exact accordance with this view of the Liav of man's nature, do we find the law of God's Avord : It is the animal nature which is controlled in commands like the following. ' If any man will be my disciple, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily and follow me. Thou shalt not kill ; Thou shalt not steal ; Thou shalt not commit adultery,' and, in one word, in all prohibitory sentences. And Avhile the understanding, or the intellectual nature, is enlightened by the scripture record of facts Avhich especially reveal the benevolence of God, the moral nature is addressed Avith a view to excite it to the exercise of its proper function,-command,-in language like the following : ' Ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor.' ' Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us ; that Ave should be called the sons of God.' f God so loved the world, that he gave hig only begotten Son, that whosoever be
*The reader will observe, that we here say nothing of Organology, or the doctrine of separate organs in the brain.
SCRIPTURES AND PHRENOLOGY. 5
lieveth.ni him should not perish ; but have everlasting life.' 'Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. What then, shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound ? God forbid.' ' The grace of God that bringeth salvation-teacheth us that, denying ungodliness, and Avorldly lusts, we should Ha'c soberly, righteously, and godly, in the present world.' 2 Cor. viii. 9 ; 1 John iii. 1 ; John iii. 16 ; Rom. v. 20; vi. 1; Tit. ii. 11.
These passages, which are indeed a mere sample of those which could be cited, may, perhaps, suffice, to shew that while, by the facts of Christianity (especially that leading one, the mission and death of Christ for sinners,) the understanding is enlightened Avith a knowledge of the Divine benevolence, this light is designed to be transmitted to the moral nature ; and to excite in it, that energetic action, which the apostle so beautifully describes, when he says, c For the love of Christ con-straineth us ; because we thus judge ; that, if one died for all, then were all dead ; and that he died for all, that they which live, should not henceforth live unto themselves ; but unto him avIio died for them and rose again.' (2 Cor. v. 14.) Here we see the moral nature, with a strong hand, not only .controlling and subjugating the animal nature ; but roused to resistless effort, in all positive excellence; and all this, from a perception of the benevolence of God Avhich the understanding, or the intellectual faculties, have discovered in the cross of Christ.
There is another proof of the harmony between Phrenology and the Bible, which it would be pleasant to exhibit at large; but which we must be satisfied Avith presenting only in epitome : viz. the fact that, while Phrenology, as a system, Avas not framed to adapt it to revelation, but, is a system of nature, framed from multiplied observations, the Bible addresses man, as Phrenology sketches him. This position may be considered as sustained, by the considerations adduced under the preceding particular : where we have seen light imparted to the intellect ; and restraint imposed on the propensities; and impulse given to the sentiments ; by the revelations, and prohibitions, and motives, respectively, of the book of God. But it may be much more fully sustained ; for we may take the individual powers, Intellectual.. Moral, and Animal, and find each of them appropriately addressed in the sacred volume ; whence the inference is irresistible, that they exist in the nature of man ; or, that the system which ascribes them to him, is a true system : i. e-. that Phrenology is in harmony with Revelation. It would extend this chapter to a length disproportionate to its character, as such, Avère a full and particular reference to be made to all the poAvcrs and faculties ; and the passages of Scripture, addressing each, to be presented. Yet, it may be well, just to shew briefly, by reference to some of them, the existence of the harmony for which we contend.
Phrenology teaches us that man has propensities which have an appropriate sphere of action ; but that they must be confined Avithin that sphere. Among these are, Destructiveness, Secrctiveness, Ama-tiveness, Acquisitiveness, &c. Now the Biblerecogniscsthe existenceof these; prescribes the limits Avithin which they may operate ; and forbids the overstepping of those limits. Destructiveness is allowed to operate so far as to destroy animal life for the sustentation of the life of man, and the increase of his comfort : and the Scripture Avarrant for it is found, Gen! ix. 3. ' Every moving thing that liveth, shall be meat for you ; even as the green herb have I given you all things.' But its rampant activity is forbidden in the commandment, ' Thou shall do no murder ;' and even, in the declaration, ' A merciful roan regardeth the life of his beast.' SecretiAre-ness has its appropriate sphere, and within that it is allowed to act ; and the absence of it Revelation severely censures ; ' A fool uttcreth all his mind; but a wise man keepeth it in, till afterAvards ;' i. c. ' concealeth his feelings and purposes.' But Sccretiveness may be abused, to purposes of deceit and falsehood ; and, accordingly, the Bible addresses it in the prohibition, ' Lie not one to another.' Amative-ness may be lawfully active in its own sphere, under the direction of the moral sentiments ; and Avhat that sphere is, appears from the institution of marriage by the Creator, and from the command, ' Increase and multiply.' But it is liable to abuse; and hence the declaration, c Whoremongers and adulterers God will judge :' and the prohibition, ' Thou shalt not commit adultery.' Acquisitiveness has its own proper sphere of activity : hence the command, c Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look Avell to thy herds ;' and in short, all the commands to industry and enterprise, in the book of Proverbs. Yet it is liable to abuse ; and hence thchuv, ' Thou shalt not steal ;' and still more, ' Thou shalt not covet ;'-
6 ON THE HARMONY BETWEEN THE
stealing and covetousncss being abuses' of Acquisitiveness.
It would be a waste of time and pains, to prove that the Bible addresses man as an intelligent and reflecting being ;-it is presumed this will not be questioned ; and, of course, that none will doubt the harmony between the Scriptures and Phrenology in this particular. Yet it may be well, in passing, to observe that distinct addresses are made to the faculties of Comparison and Causality, in numerous portions of the holy Scriptures. What are all the beautiful parables of our Lord Jesus Christ, but so many appeals to the heart, through the faculty of Comparison ? And what are the long, and connected, and logical arguments of the Apostle Paul in his epistles, but so many addresses to that power (Causality) which appreciates argument ; and can trace effects up to their causes ; and causes, out to their consequences ? This is the use of the faculty ; and this is encouraged : ' I sj^eak as unto men of understanding; judge ye what I say/ (1 Cor. x. 15.) But it is liable to abuse ; and is abused when men will exalt it to the dominion in the soul ; and believe nothing, the causes, and consequences, and mode of existence of which they cannot comprehend. And how severely do the Scrij)tures reprove such a perversion of it ? ' Canst thou by searching find out God ? Canst thou find out the Almighty to perfection ? It is high as heaven ; what canst thou do ? Deeper than hell ; what canst thou know ?' (Job xi. 7, 0. See also Job xxxviii. to xli.)
But there is an ornamental attribute of the intellectual nature of man, the design of which appears to have been, principally, to delight and to. refine him ;-viz. The sense of the beautiful, and perfect, and vast. This faculty Phrenology terms ' Ideality.' The existence of this faculty the Bible recognises, and to it a large portion of that volume is addressed. It is well known that the Bible abounds in poetry, of the boldest, and of the most beautiful character :-this, then, must be addressed to that attribute in man which is capable of appreciating it : but the only such attribute is Ideality, or the sense of the sublime and beautiful: the fact, therefore, that a large portion of Scripture is addressed to that faculty, is proof of its existence, or that Phrenology and the Scriptures are in harmony.
Phrenology ascribes to man the possession of an original and special attribute, the activity of which renders him desirous
of the approbation of others. This sentiment it designates ' Approbativeness' or ' Love of Approbation ;' and, like all the others, it has an appropriate sphere and degree of operation; and operating beyond which, it is abused. The word of God recognises the existence of this sentiment in man ; and even appeals to it, to stimulate him to holy action, and stern self-denial, and patient endurance. Our Redeemer and his apostles call us to realize the solemnities of a coining judgment, in order to brace us up to this action and endurance, holding out to our view the ' Well done, good and faithful servant,' i. e. the approving sentence of the Judge, as our reward. And what is this but an appeal to the f Love of Approbation?' It is an appeal to it, tending to rouse it to its highest, holiest action ? an action under the direction of the moral sentiments. But it is liable to abuse ; and this abuse is, in the holy Scriptures, sedulously guarded against, and strictly forbidden. Ostentation results from such an abuse ; and the language of Revelation is, f Take heed that ye do not your alms before men to be seen of them.' Shame also, sometimes results from such an abuse ; and accordingly, the Scriptures carefully guard against it : ' Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father, with the holy angels.' (Mat. viii. 38.)
It is the Phrenological sentiment,c Firmness/ which the Saviour addresses, when he bids his disciples to ' Fear not them who, when they have killed the body, have no more that they can do :' and he here calls them to the legitimate exercise of this sentiment. But it may be abused ; and then it degenerates into obstinacy. This abuse, therefore, the Scriptures forbid, and threaten. It is only when enlightened by intellect, and under the guidance of the moral nature, that it performs its appropriate duties ; and then it is an essential constituent in the character of a martyr. When not thus enlightened and directed, it forms a striking element in the character of an enthusiast, or a bigot. The abuse of Firmness is thus threatened, in the volume of inspiration : ' He that being often reproved, hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly be destroyed; and that without remedy/ (Prov. xxixl. 1.) It is evident, then, that the Scriptures recognise the existence of Firmness, and of Approbativeness ; for they address
SCRIPTURES AND PHRENOLOGY. 7
them ;-it is furthermore evident that they recognise a use, and an abuse of them ; but this is exactly what Phrenology does ; therefore the Scriptures and Phrenology are in harmony.
Let us now consider briefly man's moral nature, and we shall find that, respecting it, the harmony between Revelation and Phrenology, is quite as striking. Man's moral nature is, by general consent, that which enables and inclines him to revere, admire, and love whatever is great and venerable, and good, in the character of other beings, and especially in God ;-to believe implicitly all which He makes known,-to perceive, as it were instinctively, the difference between the character of actions,-to hope for the fruition of all which God has promised, and to cherish kindly and benevolent, feelings towards all his fellow beings. This corresponds exactly with what Phrenology terms the ' Moral Sentiments,' viz. Reverence, Marvellousness (or the tendency to believe on evidence which satisfies the intellect, what may, nevertheless, be above the comprehension of reason), Conscientiousness, Hope, Benevolence, and some others. The doctrine of Phrenology is, that this is man's highest nature, and that it was designed to control the whole man ; and certainly this is the doctrine of Revelation. Phrenology says, moreover, that the Moral Sentiments are blind in their impulses; as truly so are the Propensities ; and that, therefore, the man may mistake wrong for right,-may revere an idol or a relic,-may believe a lie,-may hope for what there is no foundation for expecting, &c. And does not Revelation in this harmonize with Phrenology ? ' The time cometh, when whosoever killeth you, will think that he doeth God service.' (John xvi. 2.) Blind Conscientiousness is here described, as it is also in the following passage : ' I verily thought with myself that / ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth.' (Acts xxvi. 9.) Blind Reverence and Marvellousness are described in all the exhibitions of idolatry, and its fables; which the Scriptures contain. (See Isa. xliv.9-20.) Furthermore, Phrenology says, that the moral sentiments must be enlightened by intellect; but that intellect itself is dark, and needs to be enlightened by Revelation. Can any one doubt the accordance of this doctrine with Revelation ? Let them read the following passages, and they will doubt no longer. ' Their foolish heart was darkened.' (Rom. i, 21.)
This is said of philosophical idolaters, who, e professing themselves to be wise, became fools.' Christians, on the contrary, are said to have had ' the eyes of their understanding enlightened ;' and, Is it asked by what means? This is the answer : f We have a sure word of prophecy, unto which ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place/ (Eph. i. 18; 2 Pet. i, 19.)
Again, Phrenology gives to the moral sentiments supremacy over the whole man ; and, consequently, over even the intellectual powers, to which the moral nature owes its light. And reasonably ; for on moral subjects the light of intellect is borrowed from Revelation, i. e. from God ; and it is right and fit that the light derived to the moral sentiments from God should be held superior to the native light of intellect, which on such subjects is dark without the aid of Revelation. Intellect may be employed in ascertaining that it is God who speaks in Revelation, and also in inquiring what he communicates ; but beyond this point has no jurisdiction. It is subsequently to be in subjection to the moral sentiments. Of these, one is Marvellousness, or the capacity for believing, and the tendency to believe what, nevertheless, we cannot comprehend. I need not say that the possession by man of such a sentiment is in harmony with Revelation ; for it is this, indeed, which adapts him to receive a revelation such as the Bible presents to him. A large portion of the contents of the sacred volume contains information not only on subjects which reason could not have discovered; but which, now that they are revealed, reason cannot understand. Such are the deity of Christ, the doctrine of the trinity, divine omniscience, and omnipresence, &c. Had our Maker not formed us with a sentiment of Marvellousness, we could not have believed these particulars, in the revelation which he has given us.-But, being endowed with such a sentiment, we are not only capable of receiving the information he has communicated, but have even a tendency, a predisposition, to receive it.
In this view. Phrenology exhibits the benevolence of our Creator. Our belief of these mysterious truths was, doubtless, necessary, in order to our highest advantage ; and our Maker saw it to be so. To have rendered us capable of believing them, then, seems (with reverence, be it said) an act of justice to his creatures ; or, at least, an act declarative of his justice, in
8 ON THE HARMONY BETWEEN THE
his dealings with them ; but to give us a tendency toward sucli a belief was an act of spontaneous benevolence. Such a tendency the sentiment of Marvellousness imparts, and its existence is a proof of divine benevolence. But it is Phrenology which makes us acquainted with Marvellousness., and which, therefore, gives this proof of the goodness of our Creator.
There is another thought connected with this subject : viz: That Phrenology exhibits the justice of God in the punishment of unbelievers. It is, plainly, a righteous demand which our Creator makes on us, that we believe his communications; seeing he has made us, not only capable of so doing, but tending so to do ; by the bestowment on us of the sentiment of Marvellousness. Now, as this is found in all persons in a greater or less degree, it is in vain that men allege that they cannot believe what they cannot comprehend, and that therefore there is no sin in misbelieving. They not only can believe, but, according to the constitution of their nature, are inclined to believe such truths ; and if they are not so inclined in fact, it is because intellect is not in subjection, but in dominion ; not controlled by the moral sentiment, Marvellousness, but controlling it. Now this is a violation of the appointment of the Creator,-a subjection of the moral to the intellectual nature,-of the superior to the inferior, i. e. it is sin, and it merits punishment, and punishment the more severe, because the sin is not only against the righteousness of God, in giving us powers capable of believing, but against the goodness of God, in giving us also a tendency to believe. Such is the doctrine of Phrenology ; how nearly it i in harmony with Revelation, let the following passages shew. f He that be-lieveth not God hath made him a liar because he believeth not the record that God gave of his Son.' (1 John v. 10.) ' He that believeth not shall be damned. (Mat. xvi. 16.) Phrenology, then, prove* that God is not arbitrary, ' reaping where he had not sown, and gathering where he had not strawed,' in demanding thé belief of mysterious and incomprehensibL truths ; since the nature of man is adapted and even predisposed to receive them and also that the punishment threaten ed against unbelief is not threatened in wantonness, but in righteousness and equity.
It would be equally easy to shew th harmony of Phrenology with Revelation by a detailed examination of the othee moral sentiments, Hope, Reverence, Conscientiousness, Benevolence, &c. ; but this jxamination must be omitted, as well as ;hat of some (the Propensities) of which we have not mentioned even the names. Enough has, however, been said to satisfy a candid mind of the truth of our position, That the Bible addresses man as Phrenology sketches him ;' and, therefore, that these are in perfect harmony with ach other. We proceed now, therefore, to shew the harmony between Phrenology1 and Revelation with regard to some of the leading doctrines off evangelical religion.
Of the present moral condition of human nature, Revelation teaches us that it is depraved ; that men are all gone aside ; that they are all together become filthy; that there is none that doeth good, no, not one.' (Ps. xiv. 3.) With this statement, and similar ones in other parts of the sacred volume, it is not exactly obvious that the doctrines of Phrenology are in harmony. Phrenology maintains that as human nature is the production of Infinite Wisdom and Goodness, it cannot be in its own nature evil ; and that no propensity or faculty or sentiment in its own nature is evil, nor is the legitimate use of any of them evil. Apparently, then. Phrenology and Revelation are at issue on the subject of the actual condition of human nature. But allow Revelation and Phrenology mutually to explain, and it will be found that their disagreement is nothing more than apparent. Revelation nowhere asserts that the elements of man's nature are in themselves evil, nor that they were imparted to the end that they might produce evil. Revelation traces the evil of human nature to the abuse of its powers ; and in asserting the fact of human depravity, asserts only that all men, without exception, do abuse or pervert their faculties. To this Phrenology assents most cordially, and declares, that men generally are not (as they ought to be, and as they were designed to be) guided by enlightened intellect and the moral sentiments, but by the propensities, i. e. that ' they are gone aside' from the line of duty, and the laws of their Maker, and that they have thus degraded their moral nature from dominion to vassalage. This is what Revelation means when it designates men as ' all together become filthy ;' and therefore though there is a difference in phraseology between a Scriptural description of human nature, as it actually exists, and a Phrenological description of it, it is in phra-
SCRIPTURES AND PHRENOLOGY 9
seology alone, and not in the state of human nature, which both recognise.
It is certain that the introduction of sin produced a great and lamentable change in the moral character of man ; but, it is also certain, that it did not produce any essential change in his nature. Previous to the introduction of sin, man was an animal, an intellectual, and moral being ; and, it is evident, that he is just such a being to the present hour. Is it asked, then, c In what consists his sinfulness, or depravity ?' The answer is perfectly easy. It consists not in the annihilation of any single power, or faculty, which he possessed in the day of his creation; nor in the addition of a single power, or faculty, to those with which he was originally endowed. It consists in the destruction of the instituted balance between them. The harmony of man's powers was destroyed by sin ; and that harmony constituted his innocence and his happiness. We have seen that Revelation and Phrenology agree that the design of the Creator was that the moral nature of man should rule :-it was originally invested with the dominion of the soul : of that dominion sin has deprived it, and subsequently to the entrance of sin, human nature has presented various phases of moral disorder ; according as the animal or the intellectual nature has assumed the government; or as it has been divided between them. If the animal and selfish part has obtained the ascendancy, the man has been f earthly and sensual ;' and if the intellectual and animal nature have held unitedly the sceptre of the soul, the character of the man has been 'devilish:' for what other conception do we form of Satan himself, than that of a mighty INTELLECT BROKEN LOOSE FROM THE RESTRAINTS OF MORALITY. Such were the cultivated Greeks and Romans of antiquity.
Phrenology and Revelation are in harmony, then, as far as regards what man was, and what he is ; nor does the correspondence terminate here : it extends to what he must become. Phrenology sees man, in the grosser specimens of our nature, Under the dominion of his mere animal feelings ; or it contemplates him as virtually a brute. In the more refined part of our species, if they be merely refined (such as were the philosophical Greeks and Romans, in whom Intellect and the Propensities were the predominant powers,) Phrenology sees a character which must be acknowledged to be Satanic. Now Phrenology declares that, in each of these cases, the law of God, as impressed on man's nature, is transgressed ; and that, as a consequence, he cannot be happy ;-happiness being inseparable from obedience to God's laws. In order to his restoration to happiness, Phrenology declares that the prostrated moral powers must be elevated to the dominion; and the dominant animal or intellectual powers reduced to subjection : that man must cease to be either a brute or a demon ; and must become human; which he can only be, by the dominion of those moral sentiments which are peculiar to the human animal, and which ally him to higher and holier beings.
The agreement of Revelation with Phrenology relative to the former portion of these its declarations, has already been indirectly shewn, in the reference made to the apostle James's description of human nature ; as *' earthly, sensual, and devilish.' Nor is it less obvious with respect to the latter portion of them-those which declare what man must become, in order to his happiness. On this point the voice of Revelation is ' Ye must be born again ; except a man be born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.' Now man has received his present nature with his birth; and when the Scriptures assert the necessity of his possessing another nature, it is quite natural to say (strong as is the figure), ' Ye must have another birth, or be born again.' Where is the difference between the language of Phrenology ' that the human faculties, the Moral Sentiments, must rule, or that man must become human,' and that of Revelation that he must be ' renewed in the spirit of his mind.'
It is true that Phrenological writers have not extended their observations particularly to individuals ; they have regarded the species generally : and hence we may say that Phrenology, in so far as it is a system of philosophy laid down in their writings, treats only of human nature ; and not of the individuals who are partakers of it. But if Phrenology be a true system of the philosophy of man, we are not to consider it as fully developed in the works which arc already extant :-it is merely sketched in bold, but just outline ; and the artists who have drawn the sketch, have left it to posterity to fill up the picture, and bring it to perfection. Thus Phrenology, as found in the books, almost overlooks the great work of restoring the dominion of the Moral Sentiments in individuals ; or, to speak in scrip-' tural language, of converting the soul : and looks forward as to the only hope of
10 ON THE HARMONY BETWEEN THE
I improving the raccj to such measures as ; shall physically tend to improve the cere-! bral organization. This., however, is the ! bearing of Phrenology, as found in the | books ; or these are the views of those i Phrenologists who have, as yet, written 1 and published their opinions ; and not, ; necessarily, as that of Phrenology itself. , Nay, the bearing of Phrenology itself, in ; fact, is such, as to favour attempts at the ; restoration of the dominion of the Moral : Sentiments in individuals; and, here again, the harmony of Phrenology with Revela-tion is strikingly and beautifully conspi-i cuous.
Phrenology teaches us, not only that there are many more fundamental powers ; and faculties in man than he was formerly supposed to possess ; but that these are ; capable of activity, independent of each ; other ; and that, consequently, the extreme activity of one set of faculties may overbear that of the others : Indeed, that this is actually the case, in all men, naturally ; for, that the Moral Sentiments are overborne, by the propensities, or the intellect. Now, in teaching us that the powers and faculties of men are capable of activity, independent of each other, Phrenology teaches us that the Moral Sentiments can be thus active ; and, moreover, that, on presenting to them their proper stimuli, they will be thus active ; and will overbear, or reduce to subordination, the propensities and the intellect. Should this be done the man is changed, renewed, converted, born again ; and even Phrenology itself teaches us the possibility of individual [improvement ; which the Scriptures term personal conversion. Noav, that Revelation and Phrenology are in harmony, on this point, is evident, from the fact, that the Scriptures present these stimuli to the Moral Sentiments on almost every page.
They are presented by the light which Revelation affords to the Intellect, relative to the dignity of our moral nature, and the degradation it suffers, when in subjection to the inferior powers. They thus tend to rouse it to the assertion of its rights ; and to command the actually dominant powers into subjection. But they are more especially presented, by the displays which Revelation makes, of those great subjects which are adapted, especially, to stimulate them; for example,-of the love of God, in the gift of his son ; thus exciting Benevolence to unwonted activity, and discovering itself in lively gratitude :-of the real evil of sin, since, to avert its consequences, and vindicate the honor of the violated law, the death of Christ, as a sacrifice, was rendered necessary ; thus calling forth a proper activity of Conscientiousness, with regard to tlic rights of God, to uniform and perfect obedience from man ::-of the inflexible rectitude, and immaculate purity of the divine character, in visiting, upon the person of his Son, when standing in the sinner's place, the transgression of his law, with the 'inflictions of his displeasure ; thus powerfully appealing to our Reverence ; and, since he spared not his own Son, bidding us never hope that he will compromise justice, by suffering the impenitent sinner to escape ;-of the riches of mercy, extended to the chief of sinners ; thus calling into exercise our Hope, and increasing the energy of its operation, by the assurance that ' the eye of the Lord is on them that hope in his mercy, to deliver their soul from death ;'-and of the harmony of the apparently conflicting attributes of Deity, in the salvation of sinners by Jesus Christ ; thus appropriately addressing our Wonder, or Marvellousness, by the spectacle of Christ ' set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood ; to declare the righteousness of God in the forgiveness of sins;' so that he appears manifestly just, while he, yet, justifies the transgressors of his law, who believe in Jesus. The agreement of all this with fact, or experience, every renovated soul is able to testify. He knows that he loves the Saviour c because he first loved him ;' or, that his Benevolence has been roused to activity by the perception of the benevolence of God. He knows that his most clear perceptions of the evils of sin, have consisted in the discovery that it had been committed against God (Ps. li. 4.), i. e. that, in its commission, the rights of God had been violated ; while the extent of those rights, and the consequent evil of violating them, was especially apparent, in connection with the death of Christ as an atoning sacrifice. And while his hope though humble, is yet unshaken, in the riches of divine mercy, he feels that a merciful God is yet ( glorious in holiness, and to be feared even while he is praised ;' or, Phre-nologically speaking, that God is such, viewed in connection with the economy of redemption, as to call into combined, and simultaneous exercise, his Reverence and his Hope. And while some, in whom intellect claims the dominion of the soul, may pity, and perhaps ridicule his reccp-'ion of the doctrine of Christ crucified, as
SCRIPTURES AND PHRENOLOGY. 11
harmonizing the apparently antagonist attributes of Deity, his intellect chastened by Wonder, has embraced it, as adapted both to his, nature, and his necessities :- ■ thus, though this truth is c to them that perish foolishness ; it is to them that believe, the wisdom of God, and the power of God ;' and ' Christ of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.'
The harmony of Revelation with Phrenology, relative to the doctrine of personal conversion, is here : Phrenology teaches us the possibility of the activity of the moral sentiments, independent of the other powers ; and also, that they may be excited, by appropriate stimuli, to overbear and subjugate those powers : and Revelation teaches us that, in the case of every converted person, these phenomena actually present themselves. The .Moral Sentiments, roused and excited by the appropriate moral stimuli with which Revelation, and especially Christianity, abounds, assume the dominion of the soul, and subjugate the Animal Propensities and the Intellectual Powers to its authority ; and f the grace of God which bringeth salvation, teaches us to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts ; to crucify the flesh with the affections and lusts ; and to cast down imaginations, or reasonings, and every high thing, that cx-alteth itself against the knowledge of God ; and to bring into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ.' (Tit. ii. 12; Gal. v. 24; 2 Cor. x. 5.)
But let it not be supposed that this supremacy of the Moral Sentiments is either acquired, or retained, without an effort. Far from it : the struggle is long, and painful, before the propensities, long accustomed to command, will give up the dominion ; and when it has been surrendered, they are still on the alert to recover the ascendency ; and require to be kej)t down by a strong hand. This is the doctrine of Phrenology ; and what is that of Revelation ? Why, that the restoration of the dominion to the higher sentiments, is a point of difficulty so great, as that it is almost a moral impossibility. ' Can the Ethiopian change his skin ? or the leopard his spots ? Then may yc also do good, wrho are accustomed to do evil.' (Jcr. xiii. 23.) Nor is it less explicit, relative to the difficulty with which thejpro-pensities, even when reduced to subjection, are retained in subordination to the Moral Sentiments: especially in persons in whom their developments arc considerable. Paul the apostle was such a person. All that is recorded of him, previous to his conversion, represents him, not only as a person under the dominion of the lower feelings ; but as one in whom those feelings were extremely active and powerful. He kept the clothes of Stephen's murderers ;-' he breathed threat-enings and slaughter' against the disciples of Jesus ;-' he entered every house' where they were to be found ; and delivered them to the authorities, to be imprisoned, or put to death ;-' he punished them oft, in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme;' and was so f exceedingly mad against them, that he persecuted them even unto strange cities.' The ascendency over propensities so strong, and so active, was not given to the Moral Sentiments in his case but by miraculous interference ; yet the energy of action to which that interference excited his Moral Sentiments, was such, that they were made to predominate, notwithstanding. But it was not, of course, without a preternatural struggle ; and so strong were the lower feelings, even when enchained, so to speak, that they gave no little trouble to the great apostle during life ; and, occasionally, they gained the ascendency. This is evident from his language in the seventh chapter of the Epistle, to the Romans. c Sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence.-That which I do, I allow not : for what I would, that do I not ; but what I hate, that do I.-For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, (or animal nature,) dwell-eth no good thing : for to will is present with me ; but how to perform that which . is good I find not. For the good that 1 would, I do not ; and the evil that I would not, that I do.-I find then a law, that when I would do good, evil is present with me. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man ; but I see another law in my members, (viz. the Propensities,) warring against the law of my mind, (viz. the Moral Sentiments,) and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members. 0, wretched man that I am ! Who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?' (Rom. vii. 8, et seq.) And what this apostle experienced in himself, he recognised in his fellow Christians ; and, accordingly, affords them an analysis of their own painful experience; and gives them suitable instructions for their conduct. ' The flesh (or Propensities) lustcth against the spirit, (or the Moral
12 ON THE HARMONY BETWEEN THE
Sentiments,) and the spirit against the flesh ; and these arc contrary the one to the other ; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.' ' If ye live after the flesh, (yield the dominion to the Propensities,) ye shall die ; but if ye, through the spirit, do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.' ' For they that are Christ's, have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lusts.' (Gal. v. 17 ; Rom. viii. 13; Gal. v. 24.) It is thus rendered evident, that, on the subject of an internal conflict in the breast of a good man, between antagonist principles, and which is commonly termed ( indwelling sin/ the harmony between Revelation and Phrenology is satisfactorily established.
Another point, on which this harmony is no less complete, is that of the diversity between the original endowments, and consequent advantages of individuals, and their correspondent^ various responsibility. Tt is asserted by Phrenology, in opposition to the declared opinions of philosophers of other schools, in every age, that there is an original difference in the capacities and powers of men, whether intellectual or moral ; as there is seen to be in their physical constitution. Phrenology does not acknowledge that all the differences actually existing, between the intellectual power, and moral principle of men, are purely accidental ; and the effects of intellectual and moral culture. It is, indeed, admitted, that this can accomplish much ; and that it ought to be carried to the highest possible point of perfection ; and to embrace, moreover, the propensities, within its sphere, which should be trained to obey, while Intellect »is taught to enlighten, and the Moral Sentiments to command. But it is not admitted that education can impart, or create powers, intellectual or moral ; nor that it can eradicate, though it may tame and control, the propensities. Phrenology, then, is on this point at variance with other systems of philosophy ; but is in harmony with Revelation, to which those other systems are opposed. For, what is the doctrine of the Bible upon this subject ? It teaches us the inequality of the distribution of the intellectual and moral, and even animal, elements of our nature ; and the consequent variety in our moral accountability. The parable of the Talents does this: one servant received five, and another two, and another one ; for the design of the Lord was to shew that each was accountable for what was entrusted to him ; and that the accountability varied with the trust. If it be said, that, in the kindred parable of the pounds, all the servants arc said to have received an equal amount, this docs not invalidate the statement above made ; for, in this parable, our Lord's intention was different ; namely, to shew that future reward would be in proportion to present diligence : and thus he whose diligence had converted his pound into ten pounds, was invested with authority over ten cities ; and he who had gained five pounds, over five cities. But accountability is proportioned to the amount entrusted ; and hence, he who, in the former parable, had received five talents, comes not to render his account of two ; nor is he who had received two, called on to account for five. And, in both the parables, the servant who is condemned, incurs the displeasure of his master, not because one pound, or talent, had not become, in his hands, ten, or five, or even two ; but because he had indolently failed to attempt improving it. This is the doctrine of Phrenology, exactly : that the endowments of men are unequal; and that, as their circumstances vary, their faculties for the cultivation of their powers vary also ; and consequently, that their responsibility varies ; while, in any given endowment, and under any given circumstances, success will be proportionate to effort, and guilt to negligence. And mark the harmony of Scripture with this : ' If I had not come and spoken to them, they had not had sin ; (i.e. they would have been, comparatively, guiltless ;) but now they have no cloak for their sin.' And upon the same principle was the wo greater which should fall on Capernaum, and Chorazin and Bethsaida, than on Tyre and Sidon, and Sodom. And, agreeing on the variety of intellectual and moral endowment in individuals, Revelation and Phrenology agree, also, in the claim they make on men, for the exercise of candour and forbearance and charity towards others ; both as to their opinions and feelings ; and as to their practices. They both see that two men, differently constituted, cannot view a given subject in the same light : nor feel towards it, with the same intensencss of interest. Neither Phrenology nor Revelation, therefore, insists that all men shall see with the same eyes; nor brands, as wilfulness and obstinacy, what may be indeed infirmity, and even, misguided Conscientiousness. They, on the contrary, agree in saying to us all, respecting those that differ from us, ' What hast thou to do, to judge another
SCRIPTURES AND THRENOLOGY. 13
man's servant ? To his own master he standcth or falleth : yea, he shall be holden up ; for God is able to make him stand. Judge not, that ye be not judged. (Rom. xiv. 4; Mat. vii. 1.)
Phrenology and Revelation harmonize, also, in their estimate of virtue. It is the doctrine of Phrenology that no action can be termed virtuous of which self is, in any way, the object: but that it must be confined to those actions which involve the relations of man to his Maker, and to his fellow beings. In several of those powers which are termed Moral Sentiments, Phrenology teaches us that the object which they regard is self, in one or other of its modifications. For example, that Self-Esteem is affected by every thing which has a tendency to increase or diminish the importance of self;-that Approba-tiveness is affected by the light in which _self may be regarded by others ; that Cautiousness is excited by whatever appears pregnant with personal injury, or which threatens the well-being of self: and so of the rest, and that, in short, there are only three of our Moral Sentiments which are truly unselfish in their character : viz. Conscientiousness, Reverence, and Benevolence. These, therefore, Phrenology terms the Superior Sentiments, and the others (though termed Sentiments) arc distinguished as Inferior Sentiments. Now how strictly in accordance Revelation is with Phrenology, in this estimate, will appear, if we compare it, either with the summary of all virtue,-our" Lord's epitome of the law,-with the details of that law/in the decalogue ;-or with the compendium of all duty, given by the prophet. Our Lord's epitome of the law, embraces only the relations of man to God, and his fellows ; and prescribes a course of conduct, which should perfectly fulfil the obligations arising out of them. ' Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy mind, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength ; and thy neighbour as thyself.' If we proceed another step, and examine the details of the law thus epitomized ; *we shall perceive, that obedience to the first four precepts of the decalogue, involves the duties arising out of the relation of man to his Creator ; and obedience to them will flow from enlightened Conscientiousness and Veneration ; for it is Conscientiousness which acknowledges the justice of homage to such a Being ; and it is Veneration, or Reverence, which inspires the emotion in which that homage is ren-
dered. The fifth precept is obeyed when Conscientiousness, and Veneration, and Benevolence, act in harmony, towards those who stand in the specified, or implied relations which the command contemplates. The sixth is obeyed by the united activity of Benevolence and Conscientiousness ; maintained in activity by Reverence : and the remaining four by Conscientiousness, either alone, or in combination with Benevolence, and Veneration. Let us now pass on to the compendium of moral excellence, given by the prophet Micah, (vi. 8) ; where we find the harmony of Phrenology with Revelation to be, even critical. Conscientiousness dictates Justice, Benevolence, Kindness, and Veneration, Humility ; and now listen to the prophet ; ' He hath showed thee, 0 man, what is good ; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God V
There is one other point on which the harmony between Phrenology and Revelation is equally conspicuous as in the last ; and with a brief notice of this point we shall bring this subject to a close: viz. The estimate which both put upon the merit of human virtue. On this subject Phrenology is the only system of Moral Philosophy (not based on Revelation) which harmonizes with the word of God. It is scarcely necessary to say, that the Holy Scriptures are explicit, in their declarations, that there is, and can be, no merit in human actions ; be they never so perfect, and never so disinterested in their character, Not only are the actual deeds of men who f esteem themselves to be righteous, and despise others,' declared, to be abominable in the sight of God :-- not only are the most perfect works of the saints, declared to be defiled with such an admixture of sin, as renders their f righteousness, filthy rags :'-but, moreover, the Scriptures take the high ground of declaring, that absolutely perfect obedience to all which God requires of man, and this, through the whole period of his existence, could not merit any thing at the hand of God. ' When ye have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants ; we liave done that which was our duty to do.' ' Can a man be profitable to God, as he that is wise may be profitable unto himself ? Is it any pleasure to the Almighty that thou art righteous ? or is it gain to turn that thou makest thy way perfect ?' ' If thou sinnest, what doest thou against
14 ON THE HARMONY BETWEEN THE
him? orif Lliy transgressions be multiplied, what docst tliou unto him ? If thou be righteous what givest thou him ? or what recciveth he of thine hand ? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art ; and tliy righteousness may profit the son of man.' ( How then can man be justified with God ? or liow can he be clean which is born of a woman ? Behold even to the moon, and it shineth not ; and the stars are not clean in his sight : how much less man that is a worm, and the son of man which is a worm.' (Luke xvii. 10 ; Job xxii. 2, 3; xxxv. G-8; xxv. 4-G.) It is admitted that the quotations here made from the book of Job, may, with greater propriety, be adduced to disprove the existence of perfect rectitude in man, than to prove its destitution of merit ; (and in this they harmonize with Phrenology,) but they are, yet, apposite to the latter subject; as they shew the Divine independence of such rectitude, even if it did exist ; and that, consequently, he could not be indebted to its possessors ; or they must be devoid of merit before him. But the quotation from Luke is entirely appropriate; and it asserts, explicitly, the utter absence of merit, even in absolutely perfect virtue. This, then, is the doctrine of Revelation on the subject : what is that of Phrenology ?
For an answer to this question, we beg the reader to bear in mind, that Phrenology considers only that course of righteous action to be virtue, from which all considerations of self are excluded ; and which arises from the activity of Conscientiousness, Reverence, and Benevolence, cither separately, or conjointly and in harmony. Now it is manifest that the proper tribunal at which to judge of the merit of virtue, or to try the question whether it really possess merit, is not that of those sentiments and feelings, or any of them, which are selfish in their nature ; for these are partial, and interested judges. In other Avords, the inferior sentiments must not be entrusted with the decision of a cause of so great importance;-it can be decided only by the superior ones ; Conscientiousness, Reverence, and Benevolence. Now it is obvious that Conscientiousness can see no merit in acting righteously ; for such action is merely the gratification of its inclination : and who ever saw merit in seeking gratification ? It is equally plain that Veneration perceives no merit in rendering homage to superiority; for, to render such homage is its natural tendency ; or, again, the sentiment is itself gratified by so doing. The same is true of Benevolence ; for where is the truly benevolent man who could ever sec merit in being kind, and compassionate? You only pain him by the .allusion to it : he can see nothing, in his benevolent action, but duty; and feels that he would have been guilty, had he not performed it. If it be said that these sentiments arc not competent judges of the question in hand, because that question relates to their own actions ? wTe reply, that they are, certainly, unexceptionable judges, since the decision which they pronounce, is against themselves.
It may, perhaps, be said, that, in our zeal to harmonize Phrenology and Revelation, we are in danger of arraying Nature against Phrenology ; for that, in fact, we are in the daily practice of conceiving merit, as connected with the operations of Conscientiousness, and Veneration, and Benevolence ; and that these conceptions have their foundation in Nature ;-they must therefore be accounted for Phreno-logically ; or Nature and Phrenology will be at issue.
This demand we acknowledge to be righteous ; and we feel no disposition to evade it. We admit, then, the existence of the conception of merit, as connected with the practice of virtue ; but we contend that that conception arises from the activity of the inferior sentiments, and selfish feelings. The proof of this position we shall present, in an illustration or two, derived from the volume of Inspiration. We all, as it were, instinctively, a|cribe merit to the martyr constancy with which Daniel's three worthies awaited, and endured, the infliction of the sentence uttered against them, for refusing to worship Nebuchadnezzar's golden image. But it is not Conscientiousness, or Reverence, or Benevolence, which ascribes it. It is Love of Approbation, contemplating them reduced from the post of honour in which they were c set over the affairs of the Province of Babylon,' to that condition of ignominy, in which they stood as criminals before their king, and as violators of his commands ; and Cautiousness, which tells us of the fearful onsets which Conscientiousness and Veneration must have endured, when the thoughts of the burning fiery furnace were presented ; and when ' Nebuchadnezzar was full of fury, and the form of his visage was changed against them ; and he commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times hotter than it was wont to be heated ;
SCRIPTURES AND PHRENOLOGY. 15
and that the most mighty men in his army should bind' the victims of his rage, and cast them into it: these selfish sentiments can understand the nature of the assaults which the superior ones sustained ; and it is for this reason that we attach the idea of merit to their supremacy.
We will take another illustration from the same sacred volume ;-that of the pa triarch Job. What are the particulars in his history, a contemplation of which suggests to our minds the idea of the me rit of his enduring and inviolate piety s In other words, what are those sentiments and feelings in us, which invest the virtue of that patriarch with the attribute of merit ? Our higher sentiments highly approve of his exclamation when messenger after messenger arrived, each dce23ening" the affliction of the holy man, until he was cast from the pinnacle of earthly greatness into the depths of desolation and distress : e The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away ;' c shall we receive good at the hand of the Lord, and shall we not receive evil ?' ' Blessed be the name of the Lord . But the very fact that this is the language of the superior sentiments, prevents any perception, by these sentiments, of the merit of their predominance. When we see merit in the piety of Job, we look at him spoiled of his possessions, bereft of his children, degraded from rank to wretchedness, from honour to discstccm and, moreover, anticipating, occasionally, deeper and more terrible calamities for the future. But these are the visions of the inferior sentiments, and the propensities ; and the conception oimcrit is theirs also. By sympathy, our Acquisitiveness is wounded by the loss of his flocks, and herds, and camels, and asses, and servants ; and our Philoprogcnitiveness and Adhesiveness, in the bereavement of his children ; and our Self-Esteem, under the loss of station, and influence, and importance ; and its substitution, by degradation, and wretchedness ; and our Love of Approbation, which sees those ' younger than he having him in derision, making him their song, and their by-word; and not sparing to spit in his face;' and remembers that ' Unto him men gave ear, and waited, and kept silence at his counsel. After his words they spake not again, and his speech distilled upon them; he chose out their way, and sat chief; and dwelt as a king in the army.' It is the activity of these, together with that of a morbid Cautiousness, foreboding still further trials, which invests the virtue of Job with the attribute of merit. But these are all, either animal propensities, or inferior sentiments ; and, of course, their decision, on the merit of virtue is inadmissible. Nature, then, in her blind impulses, or as her voice is heard in the suggestions of the inferior sentiments, proclaims the merit of virtue, and Phrenology accounts for her error; but at the same time declares that it is an error ; and that the higher sentiments correspond, in their decision, with the sentence of inspiration ;-that f when we have done all those things which are commanded us, we arc unprofitable servants ; and have done only what was our duty to do :' and that, consequently, ' the reward will be of grace, and not of debt.' And it must be so ; for ' if the merit of the most virtuous actions is perceived solely by the operation of the lower and selfish part of our nature-of those feelings and desires, in a word, which are opposed to virtue,-these actions must necessarily appear devoid of all merit to that Infinite Mind, in which such feelings and desires are necessarily unknown. He views things exactly as they are ; and he views virtue, even when perfect, as without merit ; therefore it is without merit ; and much more the virtue, so called, of imperfect beings.
Thus we have seen that Revelation and Phrenology harmonize,-that some mysterious truths of the one are analogically illustrated by the other;-that both teach the supremacy of man's moral nature ;- that Revelation addresses the individual powers and faculties which Phrenology ascribes to man ;-that Revelation and Phrenology, alike, suppose man designed, by his Creator, to believe mysterious truths ;-and capable of believing them ; -and guilty in disbelieving them ;-and righteously punished if this disbelief be j>ersevered in ;-that both agree in declaring human nature in a fallen condition ; and requiring a change which is really radical ;-that both recognise a moral conflict in the breast of a good man, between antagonist principles ;-that both acknowledge a diversity of endowment, and consequent responsibility ;-that both demand candour and charity in judging of others ;-that both agree in their estimate of virtue ; and in exploding the doctrine of human merit. Truth and Error cannot have so many points of harmony.
* Phrenological Journal, Vol. III. No. XII. p. 509.
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