by John van Wyhe
Anon., 'Introductory Statement', Phrenological Journal and Miscellany, 1823, pp. iii-xxxi.
This is the introduction to the first phrenological periodical, the Edinburgh based Phrenological Journal. The journal was a quarterly, first appearing in December 1823, and persisting, with a slight name change, until October 1847.
Here one sees in a concise statement, the aims and the grievances of the first phrenologists. They desired to be accepted as the authorities on "the most important discovery of modern times", but, instead, they were ridiculed as fools. Read on, the lengthy quotations from anti-phrenologists make for amusing reading.
in submitting to the public the First Number of the first periodical work devoted to Phrenology, we deem it proper, as conductors of that work, to make our motives and our objects perfectly understood. When we say that of the educated public,-as well those who perform as those who delegate the labour of thought,-very few individuals indeed have yet formed an adequate conception of the real nature, the cogent evidence, and the vast importance of phrenology, we neither reproach the public with its ignorance, nor compliment the phrenologists on their knowledge. We merely affirm the fact, that the public have not, and the phrenologists have informed themselves on the subject. It is more than time that the indifferent but impartial "world should know, that they are not only uninformed, but grossly and scandalously misled, in regard to this new department of knowledge. Although the proofs are so simple, that any person of average education is perfectly competent to understand and apply them, the path of evidence is not that in which they have been conducted. The enemies of phrenology have hitherto been their favourite guides, and these have most scrupulously avoided that course. This influence had the more easy operation, inasmuch as it built upon a foundation of not unnatural prejudice against a doctrine in itself certainly very new, very bold, very startling to preconceived notions, and coming, withal, from a very suspicious quarter. Germany, it must be admitted, was in doubtful repute in this country, because of some alleged fantastical speculation, not a little moral heresy, much literary extravagance, and a great deal, of quackery,-not confined to mining,-all the produce and export of that country, when yet another German started yet another spe-
iv INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
culation, which, at its first declaration, seemed to leave all the known extravagances of his country immeasurably behind. The doctrine thus appearing, prima facie, absurd, it is not matter of wonder that its terms,-a few of them, as compounds, being new to our language, - were themselves scorned and ridiculed ; and that by a sort of reaction they rendered the doctrine itself apparently still more monstrous.* It will be farther remembered, that at the time the doctrine reached this country, the Edinburgh Review was the Koran of the reading public. The reception of the new doctrine, accordingly, depended on the fiat of that literary dictatorship, whom it pleased, in a manifesto unmatched, as has been demonstrated elsewhere, by all the presumption and quackery of Germany itself, to annihilate " craniology" and "craniologists" at one decisive blow. The public were thoroughly convinced, and there was an end of the matter. Now, although it be humiliating, it is true, .that this flrst denouncement continues the measure of the public knowledge, and the rule of the public opinion at this moment. Let any one, either anti-phrenologist or neutral, ask himself, what are the grounds upon which phrenology,
* A few words, once for all, on the terms of phrenology, cannot have a more suitable place than this. They have been laughed at, until they have become the very stalest pleasantry, we take it, in present currency. It would seem, therefore, not an unfit time to examine them seriously. Of these thirty-four laughter-moving terms, will it be credited, by those who have laughed at them till they can laugh no more, that twenty-five,-compounded in the same manner, and with precisely the same sense and meaning,-are peaceful occupants of Dr Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, where they have never occasioned a smile!-nine, then, remain to be justified ; 1st, These were, like other new technical terms, necessary to express a meaning for which there were no words in Johnson's Dictionary ; 2d, They are, with one Greek exception, compounded of English words, either in Johnson's Dictionary, or in very current usage, and of the termination ness or ty, the value of which is known to every school-boy. The eight words are, adhesive, acquisitive, constructive, ideal,-all four in Johnson ;-amative concentnativc combative, and secretive, - the four last in use, though not in Johnson's Dictionary. The Greek derivative is pluloprogcnitiveness (or the animal propensity to cherish offspring), as legitimate, at least, as many terms in mineralogy, and still more in botany, or any other ne\v Greek terms for any other new science, art, matter, or thing, which is best expressed by a Greek word,-and, above all, which there is no determination to hunt down. It is time the public should know, that not one of these terms has been shewn, by the most bitter enemy of phrenology, to be either illogically compounded, or unphilosophically employed. They have merely been laughed at-as -very long names !-(Edinburgh Reviere, No xlix.)-This is not the only instance of sheer babyism which we shall bring home to our manly opponents.
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or craniology as he will probably call it, is, by himself, according to the scale of his sympathies, disbelieved, or rejected,-or contemned, or detested? He must acknowledge, that he has not examined its facts at all, and very slightly rand contemptuously skimmed its " absurd" doctrines ; and he must refer his first decision back to the Edinburgh Review.* ut is amusing to observe the result, on the public mind, of the abuse heaped by that journal on the " cunning craniologers,"-namely, a sort of partizanship, or general ; array against the subject, with a kind of feeling of duty, or point of honour, to take the side against phrenology, whenever it is alluded to, and resent all arguments, and especially all staggering facts, as personalities, and so many most obtrusive attempts "to force the matter down the public throat/' In such a state of matters, although no-thing/or phrenology will go down u the public throat," any thing against it finds facile descent. "It was easy to mislead the public y et farther; and the public has been misled in à manner quite unprecedented in an enlightened age.
'For two or three years, notwithstanding Dr Spurzheim's lectures, in London and Edinburgh, the subject was either forgotten in this country, or resorted to as a sort of gossip ahd badinage; but its philosophical converts were few.
The respect now paid to it is the result of A revival,-a revival by men of philosophical habits, many of whom readily acknowledge that they once joined in the general mirth ;- ; and because a revival, carrying the weight of second thoughts and deliberate reflection. Very striking facts began to force themselves on the notice of inquiring men both in England and Scotland. A systematic examination of the doctrine followed, and, by the force of evidence, converts were made, 'who put' Germany and the Edinburgh Review alike out of the question;-converts of calm and candid reconsideration,
* The Quarterly Review, about the same time, bore a testimony of uncommon feebleness against " craniology," which, we are.: not aware, told either one way or the other. 'The circumstance is forgotten; the conductors of that otherwise able work have a deep interest that it should.
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with whom a once-refuted quackery had no chance of coming to life again ; and who, be it well marked, have, without even the most visionary interest, adopted the system, in the face of almost universal unmitigated ridicule.
The Essays by Mr George Combe of Edinburgh were published in 1819, and by the facts they detailed, the reasonings founded on these facts, and their complete refutation of the too long-triumphant article in the Edinburgh Review, most materially advanced phrenology in this country. Sir George Mackenzie next published on the subject ; and a small anonymous work, of much eloquence, as well as ingenious reasoning, lately appeared in Edinburgh, entitled, " Observations on Phrenology, as affording a Systematic " View of Human Nature." Mr Combe began in-May 1823 to lecture on the subject in Edinburgh, and continues to give a winter and summer course every year. In England, Dr Parry of Bath, in his Elements of Pathology, speaks favourably of the doctrine ; and Mr Abernethy, of high medical renown, has, in a tract on the subject, in 1821, borne his testimony to the beauty and certainty of the philosophy of mind, to which the phrenologists have been led.
Of periodical works, the first which had the honour, since the subject was revived, to scorn the general laugh, was the New Edinburgh Review, which for more than two years powerfully, yet candidly and temperately, advocated the doctrine. The London Magazine was the next to discard the unworthy prejudice which prevails against phrenology, and has set the subject in a very strong and attractive light ; and the London Médico-chirurgical Review,-a work of the very highest estimation in the medical world,-in an article which appeared in March last, characterized by much good sense as well as talent, declared phrenology well worthy of the most serious attention of men of science.
Of associations for the cultivation of Phrenology the first was instituted in Edinburgh in 1820; which place, as it produced the most inveterate enemies, has, by a sort of re deeming compensation, furnished some of the most zealous
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friends of the philosophy of Gall and Spurzheim. The Phrenological Society, the first volume of whose transactions was lately ; published, consisted, at first, of a very few members, who have been the objects of more bad wit than any of their fellow-citizens, The members of the institution have since increased to above eighty in number, among whom are many professional and scientific gentlemen, and several eminent artists. This example has been followed by the formation of a phrenological society in Philadelphia, to which a complete set of casts was sent from Edinburgh ; and last winter a phrenological society was formed in London. In France many men of science and letters have yielded to the evidence, and adopted the principles. Among the most celebrated is Blainville, professor of comparative anatomy in the College du Plessis, who, in his lectures, states the evidence of the principles of phrenology as not subject to doubt; and Geoffry St Hilaire, also a name well known to the scientific world, as an author, a member of the Institute, and one of the most distinguished professors at the Jardin des Plantes, goes nearly as far. The necessary consequence is, that the French public have ceased to make merry with the subject, and phrenology is respectfully treated by them as a science ; the only satirists being English, who, at Blainville's lectures, distinguish themselves by a sneer when the professor comes to that part of his course. No endowed philosopher in this country has yet avowed his patronage of the new doctrine, or ventured even to allude to it, as a science, within college walls;* but some men, not so trammelled, held in public estimation at least as high as any that are, have given the science their candid investigation, and, it follows, their enlightened and zealous support. It is a little too, much, after all this, for any man, be his talents and acquirements what they may, who has
* Some of our own professors bestow occasional hits upon the subject, which only prove how much it is in their way. Their good sense is beginning to whisper them that it is as well to drop this practice. It will soon become very amusing to their own students.
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not studied the subject, to reject it, but yet more to endeavour to run it down. We would simply ask him, whether he can furnish an instance of any quackery, such as he ignorantly believes phrenology to be, which has been so revived and so supported ? *
This vigorous career of phrenology being too much for its enemies to bear with equanimity, the hostility is revived of all who had committed themselves by scorning or railing at that system. It touches pride, but it touches still more nearly some other sensibilities. If phrenology be true, all other systems of the philosophy of mind are false. Philosophical reputations are at stake, and, yet more, patrimonial interests ; and it were indeed an outrageous demand on human nature, a grand miscalculation of the state of the balance between the amour de la vérité and the amour propre, to expect that great established philosophers should have the candour-the heroism, for the sake of mere truth, to throw down their own pedestals, and shut their own chequers. From contempt, phrenology has accordingly risen to be the object of fierce opposition and intense hatred with some persons who pass for scientific men. This is particularly manifested in their hatred of the phrenologists,-a certain sign that their opposition to the doctrine is candid, fair, and philosophical. But truly there is much indulgence due to these eminent persons. They are like fishes which the water is evidently leaving dry, and, to their last gasp, they must retain a cordial hatred of the exhausters of their atmosphere.
The formal attempts at refutation have been fewer than, from the prevalent disposition on the subject, might have
* It is edifying now to look back on some of the conceited predictions of the short life of " craniology." Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, (under its first and inoffensive management,) in its very first number, (April 1817,) thus concludes one of the most perfectly inane papers which has perhaps yet been penned against the new science. After proposing a system of cardiology or the mind in the licart, as " the brain has had its day, "it says, " Such patch-work " systems of conjecture and speculation are fortunately destined, by the immutable " and eternal kws of truth, to last but for a season. Craniology has almost lived its little hour. In this city, tec arc certain that, with the absence of Dr Spurzheim, and the introduction of some other novelty, as a French dance or a "new beauty, it will be very soon forgotten."
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been looked for; but the reason lies in that uniform and signal defeat which has overtaken, and will ever await the imbecility of "speculative reasoning when opposed to an extensive and well-established induction. The best proof of this is the far-from-en viable situation in which the replita-tion of the regular anti-phrenologists have been left by their success hitherto, in the controversy. With an insignificant exception or two, therefore, public disputation has been scrupulously shunned.* The war however, has not come to an end. While the phrenologists have kept the field, they have been annoyed with sundry small attacks, which, although utterly despised by them, have told upon the public ignorance, and had the effect of fostering the public prejudice. Much of this very safe warfare is maintained on convivial occasions. Most dinner parties have long had the matter all their own way, and, the same jokes serving again and again, the "grand nonsense" has been refuted, and refuted to the perfect satisfaction of the harmonious disputants. We have seen some variation in the fortune of the afternoon, when a person who had informed himself on the subject has chanced to be present. So long as the whole company, as is the custom, attacked him at once, little progress is made, and he appears stunned by the very noise of the assault ; but when his replies shew the ineffable worthlessness of some of the-most prominent of the attacks,-especially when each gentleman has answered the preliminary question, "Have you studied the subject ?" with the well-known indignant formula, " Not I !" God forbid !"-we have seen a number of the enemy fall off, and become spectators of the fight which is kept up between the sturdy phrenologist and his assailants. It is then lamentable, in a company of men, often who are leaders and lights where they are informed, to Hear each-after each propound his own jejune preconception,
* It behoves the world to know that, notwithstanding all the noise made by the opponents of phrenology, they have not yet pointed out one single fallacy in one single fact published by the phrenologists. Of this statement we challenge contradiction, with better proof than a priori argument.
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and succeed only in establishing that he is utterly ignorant of the doctrine which he attacks. The task of the phrenologist is, nevertheless, a hard one. His arguments go for nothing because of his opponents' want of ideas. He must furnish ground on which his arguments will take hold- like the mariner who should be tasked first to make his anchorage and then to cast his anchor. This want of ideas is secretly not a little painful to the anti-phrenological disputant himself, and not the less so, that it is generally perfectly apparent to the rest of the company. We have seen some salutary warnings on this head. While the phrenologist is armed at all points,-not only master of his own science, but able, as he ought to be, readily to compare it with any of the numerous systems of mind and morals which have neutralized each other from Plato's downwards,-while he knows more of the anatomy of the brain than ninety-nine in every hundred of the medical profession itself, his antagonist, with a smile of contempt, for the poor egaré, founded in the same sort of superiority which the Chinese possesses over the European, commences his extinguishment of the craniologist." Let any such extinguisher recall his far-from-comfortable experiences on the occasion ; how severely he was tasked to call up all that would come of that valuable practical store his metaphysics ; or of the few meaningless names which he has been accustomed to consider the anatomy of the brain;* let him recollect his feelings when he found himself mired after a few steps, and angrily persevering in the debate, when deserted by every definite idea ; let him remember how he then left an argument which had first left him, and began to charge the phrenologists with presumption for believing, they being few, what the rest of the human race, being many, reject ; and especially in pretending to demonstrate thirty-three primary mental faculties in man, when no other philosopher of mind has
* We have witnessed some amusing instances of the retreat of a medical man, after a very confident attack upon a phrenologist, on this presumed his weak quarter.
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Succeeded in demonstrating one. His antagonist's defence, on this head, he may likewise remember, namely,-that there is- neither pride nor presumption in assenting to facts which are evident to his senses and his reason ; and may be equally so to others who may choose to exercise them ; whereas there are both pride and passion, in abundance, in the committed philosophers of preconception, the theorists, and inventors of metaphysics. So simple are the elements of our creed, and so easy the beautiful system of human nature to which it leads, that the necessity of its perfect comprehension by any educated man who gives it his attention, denies any thing like merit to the mere learners from the first observer, and allots even to him the praise of merely following out an accidental discovery. A dull joke may finally have come to our disputant's succour ;-one of the beridden hackneys which have done much good service in expediting a retreat from the field, and which are known and numbered in their stalls by the phrenologists.
The public are likewise misled by hits at phrenology, as certain question-begging insinuations are called, in the works of eminent authors, whose eminence in other matters has not made them acquainted with phrenology ; and likewise, as before noticed, in the lectures even within the walls of our universities.
But the most persevering of the public deluders are the writers in certain periodical journals ; who, although their ridicule be a tissue of solecisms, and their arguments unredeemed drivelling, seem to the uninformed public to triumph, merely because, they have hitherto been unnoticed. One important object of this Journal will be to disabuse the world of such false impressions, by watching the movements, hitherto so vapouring, of these less dignified foes, and visiting them with that exposure, which is itself ample vengeance on their offences.
Another department will be allotted to furnishing the public with the means of forming a just estimate of that venerable delusion, the science of metaphysics, or philosophy of
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mind, as hitherto established;-to learn and forget which so much time is wasted at our universities,-and with the simple and satisfactory explanation which phrenology affords of many curious phenomena, given up in despair by the metaphysicians.
In another department we propose to institute a course of critical analysis on phrenological principles, of our best and most popular authors, in almost every branch of writing which has man for its subject, in which we shall endeavour to shew that the best writers are the most strictly "phrenological ; and that, like the Bourgeois Gentilhomme of Moliere, who had spoken prose for forty years without knowing it, these writers owe their popularity to their being phrenological, which is another word for natural. The poets will afford us a noble field, and none more than that "priest of nature"-Shakspeare.*
We shall occasionally review new publications, when we can thereby illustrate phrenology-try the soundness of the author's views, by what has never yet failed us, a phrenological test, or in any way bring phrenology to bear upon the subject.
* Wishing to vary the matter of our First Number, we have given but one example of the application of phrenology to criticism, and we have taken that example from Shakspeare himself. In his character of Macbeth, he not only never departs from the view of human nature which phrenology has pointed out to be the true one, but often absolutely uses the phrenological language. We have other writers in our eye who owe their fame to their truth to nature. To the author of Waverley we shall, in our next Number, apply the infallible phrenological touchstone. He will not differ from us in opinion, that the characters which he has delineated in Quentin Durward are so many types of nature. We rather think we have the whole European public committed this length. We pledge ourselves to demonstrate, that that nature is the nature which phrenology, and no other philosophy, is fitted to analyze and explain. We will use the chief excellencies of his work as an exposition of our science ; and when we have adduced him as one of our most powerful witnesses, we will remind him, that even he, in ignorance, compared our science to the palmistry of the Egyptian wanderers! and when we have done so, our revenge will be complete.
Of the universal application of this powerful analysis, which, like some of the agents of chemistry, reduces the most complicated moral compounds to their first elements, the reader will find some examples in the Transactions of the Phrenological Society, lately published,-among others, a historical application to the case of King Robert Bruce, and a histrionic to that of Clara Fisher and Kean. We understand, too, that an exposition of the peculiarities of the genius of Raphael, as explained by his cerebral development, known from a cast in the Society's possession, will hereafter be given to the public.
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We will omit no opportunity of removing those grounds of unjust dislike to our science, arising from an erroneous belief that it leads to materialism, fatalism, immorality, or irreligion ; by shewing that, while it is perfectly consistent with, and most favourable to the doctrine of the immortality be the soul, it leaves the question of its essence just where it was beyond human view-that it is perfectly consistent with the freedom of human actions-that it tends to a very highly-improved moral economy-and that it is beautifully in harmony with the precepts of our Holy Faith. Our readers may rest assured, that they will not only never find this Journal inculcating or countenancing principles at variance with sound morality and pure religion, but, on the contrary, they will find it bringing to speedy justice any pseudo-phrenological writers, who may attempt to pervert the science by a contrary course.
We shall find room for treatises tending to throw light on our important science, and for all new phrenological facts, information, and intelligence, which may be worth publication. Many curious facts have been communicated to the phrenologists, in the whole range of human nature, which those in possession of them never dreamed of transmitting to the metaphysicians, who would only have pronounced them unexplainable in the present state of human knowledge. A Phrenological Journal will attract such information in the whole extent of its circulation.
We have mentioned some of the intended allotments of our work, without meaning thereby to limit its range, or to exclude a variety of matter, instructive or amusing, having always a tendency, directly or indirectly, to illustrate or defend the science of phrenology.
We scarcely deem it necessary to apologize for the occasional introduction of lighter matter, more suitable to our subsidary title of a Miscellany ; when by means of it we can indirectly support phrenology, by pointing out amusing absurdities in the tenets and conduct of its opponents. It is they, not we, who tumble into the incongruities on which
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the ludicrous is founded. The incongruities which they impute to phrenology appear so only to ignorance, and move laughter, just as the doctrine of the rotation of the earth, quicker than a cannon bullet, did in the witlings of the sixteenth century.
One department, at present much called for, will be reserved for the exclusive benefit of the enemies of our subject and ourselves, who may in future distinguish themselves, as they have hitherto done, by one or more of the following laudable modes of refuting an inductive science. bailing and abuse-falsehoods and malignities-impertinencies and insolencies-dull jokes-indecencies -nastinesses and brutalities-the three last sometimes separate, and sometimes combined. To this choice catalogue we engage faithfully to add any newly-emerging species. While we pledge ourselves to honour and respect all candid, fair, and philosophical opponents, whose object, like our own, is scientific truth, and not mere victory-above all, that most worthy opponent who has never yet blessed our sight, an inductive adversary, who shall scrutinize our facts-while we shall ever approve in others the utmost caution in assenting to our observations and propositions, and leave to their own self-satisfaction all who do us no possible harm, by merely resolving not to believe-we mean to repel all offensive operations of those we designate eminently our enemies, and to brand their attacks as disgraceful to the age in which we live, and its certain reproach in the next ; and we trust that no instance of our retaliation, for retaliation every iota of it will be, of attacks made with perfect impunity for several years past, shall lack the entire sympathy, nay, the hearty approbation of our impartial readers, who, in their love of justice, do not object to witness punishment condign.
That we have not exaggerated the sum of "many a wrong" suffered by the phrenologists, we deem a few specimens of the treatment imperatively called for.
I-RAILING AND ABUSE. Examples from the Edinburgh Review, No 49, June 1815.
" We look upon the whole doctrines taught by these two modern peripatetics, (Drs Gall and Spurzheim), anatomical, physiological, and physiognomical., as a piece of thorough quackery from beginning to end."
* * * * *
" There are a certain number of individuals., however, in every community, who are destined to be the dupes of empirics, so it would be rather matter of surprise if these itinerant philosophers did not make some proselytes wherever they come.
" Well has the learned and most witty historian of Mrs John Bull's indisposition remarked, ' there is nothing so impossible in nature, but mountebanks will undertake; nothing so incredible, but they will affirm.'"
* * * * *
"'Were they (Drs Gall and Spurzheim) even to succeed in " shaking off the suspicion of malajides, which we apprehend is inseparably attached to their character, we should not hesitate " to say," &c.
* * * * *
" We have two objects in view in a formal expose and exposure of the contents of the volume before us. The first is to contradict directly various statements, in point of fact, made by Drs Gall and Spurzheim with unparalleled boldness and effrontery, which persons, perfectly satisfied of the general absurdity(!) of their opinions, may not have the same opportunity of refuting as ourselves : The second, and by far the most important, to save the purses of our readers, if possible, before it be too late, by satisfying that curiosity which might otherwise lead them to purchase the books themselves, or attend the lectures of these cunning craniologers."
* * * * *
" Such are the opinions of Drs Gall and Spurzheim on the " Functions in general of man, and on his Intellectual Faculties in " particular. We have been the more minute in our sketch of " them, that their absurdity might be the more apparent. To " enter, on a particular refutation of them, would be to insult '.' the understandings of our readers. Indeed, we will flatter the " authors so far as to say, that their observations are of a nature to set criticism entirely at defiance. (This has two meanings). " They are a collection of mere absurdities, without truth, connexion, or consistency ; an incoherent raphsody, which nothing could have induced any man to have presented to the
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public, under a pretence of instructing them, but absolute insanity, gross ignorance, or the most matchless assurance."
* * * * *
"Such is the trash, the despicable trumpery, which two men, calling themselves
scientific inquirers, have the impudence gravely to present to the physiologists
of the nineteenth century, as specimens of reasoning and induction."
* * * * *
"We are so heartily tired of the mass of nonsense we have been obliged to wade through, that we could now most willingly have done. But the anatomical discoveries of Drs Gall and Spurzheim yet remain to be considered, and these are on no account to be passed over in silence. It appears to us, that in this department they have displayed more quackery than in any other ; and their bad faith is here the more unpardonable, that it was much more likely to escape detection. These <c gentlemen are too knowing not to have perceived that the science " of anatomy is in general cultivated with most zeal by those who " have the least leisure to devote to it ; that is, by persons who are " toiling with weariness through medical practice, and that those "whose profession it is to improve this department of human " knowledge, are usually content to bequeath it to their sons., just AS IT WAS HANDED DOWN TO THEM BY THEIR FATHERS AND grandfathers. They calculated, no doubt, that as the number of individuals is inconsiderable, who are not only zealous " in anatomical pursuits, but, by a fortunate combination of circumstances, are enabled to bestow their whole time on them, the " chance that a few bold affirmations respecting the structure of a " delicate and complicated organ would be put to the test of experiment was proportionally small. Perhaps it would occur to them, " too, that as unprofessional people are in no respect aware HOW VERY LITTLE FAMILIAR EVEN PHYSICIANS OF THE FIRST EMINENCE ARE WITH THE STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN, it might contribute materially towards their reputation with the public to DELUDE A FEW OF THE MEDICAL TRIBE, WHO ARE NATURALLY
* Although the above passage in italics contains but a moderate portion of insulting and abusive matter, we could not withhold it, and beg our readers to peruse, reperuse, and never forget it. It contains, Primo, a declaration, that the medical profession, with a very few exceptions, are all but ignorant even of the structure of the brain : Secundo, That the anatomical professors are, quoad the brain, old women ; and, Tertio, That it was the easiest thing for Gall and Spurzheim to cheat them all, from their not being able to detect the imposture. Now our readers will please to observe, that all soberly-thinking families believe or reject phrenology according to the creed on the subject of the family doctor, who, they affirm, and even argue, must be the best judge ; and that that gentleman is generally a very decided anti-phrenologist, without knowing what phrenology is. Indeed, from the nature of medical education, which almost excludes any attention to the philosophy of mind, this result is by no means wonderful They will farther keep in view, that thousands attempt to dispute on phrenology who
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This never-to-be-forgotten review thus concludes:
The writings of Drs Gall and Spurzheim have not added one fact to the stock of our knowledge, respecting either the structure or the functions of man; but consist of such a mixture of gross errors extravagant absurdities, downright mis-statements, and unmeaning quotations from Scripture, as can leave no doubt, we apprehend, in the minds of honest and intelligent men, as to the real ignorance, the real hypocrisy, and the real empiricism of the authors."
We have not a shadow of doubt that, if the editor of the Edinburgh Review could, he would gladly recall this mpst imprudent manifesto. Our belief is, that he will not again meddle with the subject, although he will thereby be placed in an awkward predicament, if phrenology becomes, as it cannot fail to do, a subject of general interest. The old refutation will not suit the present state of the science. A new attempt by the Edinburgh Review would be good fortune quite beyond our hopes.
We deem a short notice enough for the Quarterly Review, which has dealt in more measured abuse than the Edinburgh. In concluding their manifesto, in which, as in duty bound, they reject the new science as " sheer non-tc sense," they take merit in softening their appellation of Dr Spurzheim to " Fool"-No XXV. p. 128. They had expressed their opinion of Dr Gall, more than a year before, when reviewing Madame de Staël's L'Allemagne.
"The natural philosophers of Germany are too well known to need commendation ; but Madame de Staël is by far too indulgent to such ignorant and interested quacks as the craniologist Dr Gall, and the magnetist Dr Mainaduc, if she regard them in any other light than (that of) impostors."
2. Examples from other Publications,
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine has distinguished itself as the most persevering, and, of course, the most ab-
never saw the brain in their lives ; and, lastly, they will please to be informed, that, so far from trusting to escape " detection," Dr Spurzheim did actually, as is perfectly notorious, court and obtain & public demonstration of the brain, with the late Dr Gordon, one of the most eminent anatomists of the Edinburgh school of medicine.
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surd of the assailants of phrenology,, and enemies of phrenologists. It would indeed be matter for wonder if such a work had abstained from abuse.
" We have already said, that, in our opinion, fool and phrenologist are terms as nearly synonimous as can be found in any language. One writer in this work demolished the Edinburgh Phrenological Society by one article, equal to any thing in Arbuthnot or Swift. (In nastiness we presume.) The phrensied called out against wit, and clamoured for pure argument. Here they have it, and with a vengeance !"-blackwood's Magazine No Ixxii. p. 100. -
" These infernal idiots, the phrenologists," &c.-blackwood's Magazine, No Ixxvi. p. 593. .
* * * * *
" It is not by extreme cases only, but by much more common '' facts, that the flimsy theories of these German illuminati are " to be demolished."-rennell on Scepticism.
* * * * *
"A tribe of crazy sciolists, denominating themselves craniologists"--" these visionary abortions."--this crew."-London Literary Gazette, 13th September 1823. p. 587.
More of this flatterer in the sequel.
II.-FALSEHOODS AND MALIGNITIES.*
1. On the authority of Blackwood's Magazine for May 1823, the following dialogue took place among certain gentlemen, declared enemies of phrenology and phrenologists, assembled in a pot-house :-
Odoherty. What did your friend Brodie t die of, Mr Tickler ?
Tickler. Apoplexy, I suppose. His face was as black as my hat.
Hogg. Lucky Mackinnon's bonny face was black too, they were saying.
Dr Mullion. Yes ; "black, but comely" tt I saw her a day or two afterwards,-very like the print.
* It was necessary to class these offences together, for it was always found that the falsehoods were malignities, and the malignities falsehoods. Indeed, some attacks, as the reader will perceive in the sequel, have a pancratic character, and exhaust the whole catalogue.
t Brodie was a notorious criminal, executed for systematic and long-continued theft and housebreaking.
tt Proh pud or !
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. xix
Tickler. These infernal idiots, the phrenologists, have been kicking up a dust about her skull, too, it appears. Will those fellows take no hint ?
Odoherty. They take a hint ! Why, you might as well preach to the Jumpers, or the Harmonists, or any other set of stupid fanatics. Don't let me hear them mentioned again.
Dr Mullion. They have survived the turnip. What more can be said ?
Hogg. The turnip, doctor ?
Dr Mullion. You haven't heard of it, then ?-I thought all the world had. You must know, however, that a certain ingenious person of this town lately met with a turnip of more than common foziness in his field ; he made a cast of it, clapped it to the cast of somebody's face, and sent the composition to the Phrenological, with his compliments, as a fac-simile of the head of a celebrated Swede, by name Professor Tornhippson. They bit,-a committee was appointed,-a report was drawn up,- and the whole character of the professor was soon made out as completely secundum arlcm, as Haggart's had been under the same happy auspices a little before. In a word, they found out that the illustrious Dr Tornhippson had been distinguished for his inhabit!veness, construct! veness, philoprogenitiveness, &c.- nay, even for " tune," " ideality," and " veneration."
Odoherty. I fear they have heard of the hoax, and cancelled that sheet of their Transactions. What a pity !
Hogg. Hoh, hoh, hoh ! The organization of a fozey turnip ! Hoh, hoh, hoh, hoh ! the like o' that ! The Swedish turnip,- the-celebrated Swede!-P. 593.
This ignoble discourse was published, by the respectable interloquitors, in the knowledge that the true tale of that " weak invention of the enemy," the turnip, was as follows :
In April 1821, a medical gentleman in Edinburgh, aided by a landscape painter, fashioned a turnip into the nearest resemblance to a human skull which their combined skill and ingenuity could produce. They had a cast made from it, and sent it to Mr G. Combe, requesting his observations on the mental talents and dispositions which it indicated ; adding, that it was a cast from the skull of a person of an uncommon character. Mr C. instantly detected the trick, and returned the cast, with the following parody of " The Man of Thessaly" pasted on the coronal surface :-
there was a man in Edinburg,
And he was wond'rous wise ;
He went into a turnip-field,
And cast about his eye
xx INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
And when he cast his eyes about,
He saw the turnips fine ;
"How many heads are there" says he,
"That likeness bear to mine ?
"So very like they are, indeed,
No sage, I'm sure, could know
This turnip-head that I have on
From thora that there do grow."
He pull'd a turnip from the ground ;
A cast from it was thrown :
He sent it to a Spurzheimite,
And pass'd it for his own.
And so, indeed, it truly was
His own in every sense ;
For cast and joke alike were made
All at his own expense.
The medical gentleman called on Mr Combe next day, and assured him that he meant no offence, and intended only a joke. Mr C. replied, that he treated the matter entirely as such ; and that if the author of it was satisfied with his share of the wit, no feeling of uneasiness remained on the other side. The story got into the Caledonian Mercury, at the time, so that the above misrepresentation must have proceeded on the faith that the real facts were by this time forgotten. For nearly six months past, the opponents of phrenology have been chuckling over this story, as a delightful specimen of the accuracy of our science ; and we have been equally amused with the proof it affords of their own gullibility. A human skull is an object which it is possible to imitate ; and if, in the instance in question, or in any other instance, the imitation had been perfect, a cast from the fac-simile would have been just as completely indicative of natural talents and dispositions as a cast from the original skull itself, supposing phrenology to have a foundation in nature. There was a lack, therefore, not only of wit but of judgment, in the very conception of the trick. If the imitation was complete, no difference could exist betwixt a cast from a turnip, and a cast from the skull which it was made exactly to resemble ; if
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. xxi
it was imperfect, the author of the joke, by his very departure from nature, encountered an evident risk of his design being detected, and becoming, himself, the butt of the very ridicule which he meant to direct against the phrenologist. This has actually been the result. The imitation was execrably bad, and the cast smelt so strongly of turnip, that a cow could have discovered its origin. We do not mean to say, that the pot-house wits themselves would have been equally acute: far otherwise ; for there. cannot be even the shadow of doubt, that, had a cast, taken from a turnip as it grew, without any attempt to make it resemble a human head, been submitted to them, granting to them the unusual advantage of perfect sobriety, they would not have discovered the trick. An experienced phrenologist was the last person on whom the deception could pass ; but all heads are alike-all turnips are heads, and all heads turnips, on the very shewing of the anti-phrenologists.
2. An enemy of phrenology is known to have deliberately averred, that he heard an eminent phrenologist say, that he had cut the acquaintance of several persons upon their unfavourable cerebral development alone ;-while the truth was, that he really heard the phrenologist say, that it was of the essence of the science to teach us to bear with our neighbour's peculiarities, knowing these to be the natural result of his cerebral development.
3. It is boldly stated by some enemies of phrenology, and with amazing effect on the credulity of the public, that Dr Spurzheim himself,-Dr Spurzheim who has for nearly twenty years devoted every faculty of his mind to the new science, and who continues to teach it with indefatigable zeal,-that Dr Spurzheim acknowledges that he has been all along trying experiments on the "gullibility " of mankind, and laughing in his sleeve at his success ! ! !
What must be the extent of that "gullibility" on which such a story can take effect !
4, " The author of 'The Gathering of the West,' politely refused to allow his head to be manipulized by the same hands "that so successfully developed the cerebral organization of "Haggart the murderer."-Blackwood's Fables, No Ixxii. p. 130.
The truth.-The author of " The Gathering of the
xxii INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
West" was in the company of the phrenologist , who ascertained the cerebral organization of David Haggart, (nature having previously developed the said cerebral organization), and who published the result of his observations, which, in spite of the contemptible ribaldry to which it has given rise, all who understand phrenology and do not misapply even its most elementary terms, held, and do still hold as affording a demonstration of the truth of the science. This phrenologist authorizes us to counter-state that the author of " The Gathering of the West" requested him to examine his cranium. He declined, and remained firm, although much urged by that gentleman. The falsehood is not imputed to the said author, to whom we should not have alluded, had he not been first dragged forward by coarser hands, and thereby insulted as the subject of a malevolent falsehood, and had that falsehood not been directed against a phrenologist.
III.-IMPERTINENCIES AND INSOLENCIES.
Under this head we class all empty petulances, which merely indicate their authors over-respect for himself, and under-respect for his opponents, when he has not established, by his facts or arguments, even the shadow of a right to assume such a style ;-all pertnesses, flippancies, and insulting jeers, in short, which require no other quality than effrontery, and which are always found in close connexion with disgraceful ignorance.
1. " Scotch Nonsense" was the suitable title which the doubtless philosophic editor of a well-known London newspaper had (of course by patient investigation of phrenology) qualified himself to give to an extract he was pleased to copy from the Caledonian Mercury, describing the cerebral development of Mrs M'Kinnon, lately executed in Edinburgh for murder, which so irresistibly illustrated the science.
If phrenology be nonsense, it is assuredly not Scotch nonsense, having originated in Germany, and being counte-
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. xxiii
nanced in England by men of the pitch at least of that editor. A Scotch phrenologist prepared, but did not send to the Caledonian Mercury, the following paragraph, for the eye of this enlightened anti-phrenologist. We are happy to supply the defect :-
" English Sense.-Many persons, no doubt, regard the doctrines as too ridiculous to merit a serious refutation, but we cannot subscribe to this opinion. The writings of Drs Gall and Spurzheim themselves are worthy of a calm and philosophical refutation, if they contain erroneous views ; but when other men of judgment, and not destitute, of talent, come forward as supporters of their opinions, and not only so, but when societies are formed for their cultivation, we suspect that the tide of ridicule will soon begin to flow in an opposite direction, if those who patronise the established system persevere in this supercilious treatment of their opponents. The contempt of the Chinese for the science and literature of Europe does not arise from a more enlarged and comprehensive understanding in that nation, but it marks the extent to which ignorance and prejudice possess the mastery over their minds."-london Medico-Chirurgical Review, March 1823.
2. " Cranioscopy means the inspection of the cranium, and craniology a discourse on the cranium. Phrenology is derived from the Greek noun (pçtvetç, mind,* or rather, perhaps, from Qçniriç, mentis delirium, the same root from which our common English word phrensy takes its rise, and which signifies, according to Dr Johnson, on the authority of Milton, madnes., frantickness. The Scottish writers, on this subject, with the characteristic good sense of their countrymen, prefer the appropriate term phrenology (first applied, nevertheless, by Dr Spurzheim,) to the less significant terms employed by the " cranial philosophers of the south, or the fathers of skull-science on the continent. Phrenitis, in the nosological systems of " Sauvages and Cullen, I need scarcely remark, is a cognate word."-Blackwood's Magazine, No liv. p. 73, note.
3. "The most inveterate enemies (we thank thee, Jew!) of Gall and Spurzheim must now be convinced-convicted of the blind folly of their opposition to the doctrines of those great discoverers in the philosophy of the human mind. Fortunately for mankind, David Haggart murdered the jailor of the Dumfries prison, and that distinguished craniologist, Mr George Combe, having, according to the method of induction
* Sed potius, [greek characters here]. We notice this, as that classical journal is particular in such maters.
xxiv INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
"prescribed by his predecessor Lord Bacon, and explained by his contemporary Mr Macvey Napier, studied the natural character of the murderer, as indicated by his cerebral organization, has been enabled to place phrenology among the number of the exact sciences. Looking- upon this achievement as by far the greatest that has been performed in our day, we shall endeavour to present our readers with a short sketch of Mr Combe's discoveries, which have thus formed an era in the history of human knowledge.
"Mr George Combe, who possesses a tenderness of sensibility rarely found united with great intellectual power, made his experiments, &c, &c.-Blackwood's Magazine, No lix. p. 682.
4. " From the slight and imperfect sketch which we have now given of the conduct of this interesting young man, (Haggart), as furnished to us by Mr Combe, the world will perceive the high character of that philosophy of which he is the ablest expounder. For our own parts, we think that Gall and Spurzheim, and Combe, have thrown greater light on the nature of man than all the other philosophers put together since the world began. Indeed, there is now little or nothing to discover. The moral and intellectual geography of the head of man, and, we, understand, of all other animals, is laid down with a minuteness of accuracy that must be very galling to the feelings of an Arrowsmith or a Morrison. Aristotle, Lord Bacon, and Locke, are mere impotent ninnies in comparison with Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe ; and, indeed, any one page of Combe's great work on Phrenology, is worth 'all that Bactrian, Samian sage e'er writ.' We propose that a collossal and equestrian statue be erected to him on the Calton-hill, instead of that absurd national monument the Parthenon; and that a subscription be forthwith set a-going, under the auspices of Sir John Sinclair, who will soon make Michael Linning hide his diminished head."- Blachwood's Magazine, No lix. p. 690.
What immediately follows is little short of intuition. It is our friend the Literary Gazette once more, as promised.
6. " Poor Dr Stukely never dreamed that a future age would produce a tribe of Crazy sciolists, denominating themselves craniologists, (which they do not) ; that these visionary abortions would establish in modern Athens, formerly known by the name of Edinburgh, a Phrenological Society, (why not Cranilogical ?) and open a toy-shop in the Strand for the sale of casts from the heads of those worthies who have been executed for murder, rape, and larceny ; or, to employ the technical phraseology of this crew, who have been martyrs to excessive destructiveness, amativeness, and secretiveness. How would
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. xxv
" the good sense of that philosopher have revolted on seeing Mr De Ville point out to his customers an imperceptible eminence or invisible depression, as the only reason for the fatal sentence of the law ! And what would he have said on learning that it was the height of the fashion for every fool to have a cast of his own head !"-london Literary Gazette, 13th Sept. 1823.
The classification of the above notable extract rather perplexed us. We first thought it merited a place among the witticisms, where its author, we doubt not, would, if consulted, have placed it. Its preponderating impertinence, however, removed the difficulty.
1. "We cannot hope not to raise upon ourselves 'a pitiless " 'storm'-all Gall's bitterness, and all Spurzheim's spleen."- Edinburgh Review, No xlix. p. 229.
2. " By a proper gauging of the head without, they can tell to a " trifle how much it contains within They have always found, that the larger the cranial part of the head measured upon the outside, skin and all, the greater the quantity of brain lodged in the cranial cavity. So it is the simplest process in the world. Shave a man's head, and you have the measure of his mind in a moment. Multiply the length by the breadth, and the product by the thickness, and his philosophy and feeling will come out to the fraction of an inch. The remark is as old as it is said to be true, that no real hero is a hero to his " valet de chambre. Let all those whom it may concern now " remember, that no man can be a pretended philosopher to his barber."-Ediniburgh Review No xlix. p. 246.
3. "In the course of our own experience, we have observed that persons who have a lurking affection for port-wine have uniformly a certain redness of nose ; and yet we are far from conceiving ourselves warranted to infer from this, that the nasal hue is the cause of the vinous partiality. Some, on the contrary, are disposed to maintain that it is rather the effect ; but this we hold to be quite wicked and calumnious. Again, it is a remark, which we have never found to fail, that all great lawyers have long and very mobile fingers,'digiti prehensiles,' as Linnaeus would have called them, with a remarkably smooth cuticle or epidermis on the palms of their hands. Shall we therefore conclude that this length and flexibility of finger, and this exceeding smoothness of palm, are the cause of eminence in the law ? No ; this may be a
XXVI INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
" case of mere coincidence ; nay the professional eminence may indirectly be the cause of some of these phenomena ; but this is dangerous ground."-Edinburgh Review, No xlix. p. 247-
4. "Whether the organ of hope goes upwards or downwards, backwards or forwards ; whether the organ of order stands quite clear of that of tune ; whether the organ of combativeness does not intertwine with the organ of destructiveness ; whether the organ of wit does not run the organ of imitation through the body ; whether one might not scoop out the organ of covelwencss, from end to end, as a cheesemonger with " his wimble does a bit of Stilton,, and yet not interfere in the least with the organ either of benevolence or of veneration ;-" these, and many other questions of equal importance, would be in vain determined by an inspection of the engravings alone."-Edinburgh Review, No xlix. p. 250.
5. "Then, in point of extravagance, we do think, that since the integuments of every sort covering the skull seem to present so little impediment to the exercise of their acute vision, and their erudite touch, in the discovery of the bumps, it would have made very little difference to them, and been vastly more convenient for their customers, if they had affirmed that they could discover a man's character through his night-cap, or his hat, or a wig of four stories, or even through both hat and wig, at the distance of twenty miles, provided they had a good telescope and the weather were clear."-Edinburgh Review, No xlix. p. 253.
6. Why do the phrenologists restrict themselves to thirty-three cerebral organs ?-Why have they not found more ?-An organ of angling for instance ;-of hunting,-of cobbling,-or of punch-drinking ?-Blackwood's Magazine.
7. As craniology is a science of bumps, some of them good, and some of them bad, it follows, that a character may be made perfect, by planing off, or " scooping out" the bad bumps.- Q. E. D.
8. Converse.-A proper application of steel-caps or helmets, so constructed as to restrain the growth of the bad bumps, and favour the growth of the good, would make the whole human race perfectly virtuous and intellectual,-nothing but Socrateses, Newtons, and Howards in the world. For a full detail of this plan, vide Blackwood's Magazine., No liv. p. 74.
9. " In the education of youth, the phenomenon is quite fa* fc miliar, that both the intellectual and moral powers are stimulated and improved by scholastic castigation. Therefore these powers are not situated in the head."-Blackrvood's Magazine, No liv. p. 74.
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. xxvii
10. Why is phrenology like a parrot ?-Ans. Because it is farfetched and full of nonsense.
11. Why is the saying, "As the bell clinks the fool thinks " applicable to a phrenologist ?-Ans. Because the phrenologist sees in the brain, as the fool hears in the clink of the bell, the disordered fancies of his own imagination.
The last two overpowering arguments formed part of a lecture on anatomy and physiology delivered in this city.
V.-INDECENCIES, NASTINESSES, AND BRUTALITIES.
The published examples of these modes of refuting phrenology, we think it just to all other of our publishing enemies to say, distinguish the classic page of Blackwood alone.
1. In the Note on page 74 of the liv. Number, is an indecent allusion to an anecdote invented against the late Dr Webster of Edinburgh, which every debauched dotard will instantly tell you, if you give him the association. The indelicacy is also a wretched joke. It is meant to establish by possibility the organ of benevolence elsewhere than in the brain. We content ourselves with referring to the foul passage, to make good our charge ;-we will not quote it.
2. The whole discussion is grossly indecent, where these moral (philosophers comment on Dr Spurzheim's observations on hereditary excellencies and faults. They entitle it, " Improvement " of Intellect from Cross-breeds of Genius."-No liv. p. 15.
3. " Dr Clyster's" theory, as propounded on page 74 of No liv. and the pretended misprint for covetiveness, with the witty remarks thence arising, all as contained in a Note to page 76 are specimens alike beastly. The comparison contained in the paragraph at the foot of the 2d column on page 690 of No liv. is too sickening even to be described. If we were asked whence it came, we should say from a carouse of jolly beggars.
4. Jests on human suffering, in its most horrible visitations, are well and truly called brutalities. In attempting to ridicule that most demonstrable doctrine of phrenology, the pathognomy, or manner, expression, and attitude corresponding to several of the faculties, Blackwood's Magazine says,-
xxviii INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
"We believe also that Haggart's general appearance corresponded very nearly with the above description. We never but once had the pleasure of seeing him, and then we particularly remarked the stiffened approach of the shoulders to the head. But candour forces us to remark, that appearances may have been temporary and deceitful, for he had just been turned off: and in that predicament it is possible that the shoulders of any gentleman might make a stiffened approach to his head," &c.--No lix. p. 686.
" Mr Combe still observed the same laudable delicacy and refined humanity towards him (Haggart) who was the subject of his queries, and soon about likewise to be the subject of the still more searching-home thrusts of Dr Monro, that had marked the whole of his behaviour during their interview."- No lix. p. 683.
" Even on the scaffold, where he conducted himself in a manner deserving the highest approbation, he did not, we are told (for we were a minute or two behind our time), &c.---No lix.
"We saw him dissected."-Ibid. As amateurs, we would ask, or as students ?
We should not have been entitled to adduce as a specimen of brutality, quoad phrenologia, the dialogue which led to the one already given, relative to the story of the turnip, unless it was evidently meant to introduce that notable falsehood. It is of great consequence that our opponents should be properly branded.
See the disgusting conversation about executions in No Jxxvi. p. 592.
these are the ignoble means by which men, who yet style themselves philosophers, and are pleased to hold at nought the power of observation, and the reasonings of all other intelligent creatures, have deemed it philosophical to treat one of the most important inductive inquiries which science has yet been called upon to prosecute ;-these are the weapons with which they have endeavoured to annoy and obstruct those who have given that inquiry their serious attention. To answer such reasonings were degradation only less profound than to employ them ; but it were of the worst
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. xxix
example to allow them to pass unnoticed. In future, therefore, we will record them. We will insure them their fitting need of unsparing exhibition ; for there is severe retribution for such malignity and fatuity in simple exposure. The transgressor who attracts no notice, when one of the multitude, becomes an object of immensely-increased regard, when sole occupant of an elevation created expressly to shew him; and the same critique on his character which goes for nothing as he moves in the world below, ïtells a thousandfold when looked up to on a label affixed to his breast,-
PILLORY SHALL BE OUR ENGINE OF PUNISHMENT.
Let us be perfectly understood. We force our doctrine on no one ; but we are well entitled to say, " attack it fairly-attack us fairly, or let both alone." We cannot too often repeat, that all candid inductive opponents, who love truth better than a paltry hollow reputation, shall meet with our most perfect respect and consideration ; nay, even speculative a priori reasoners, who are at once sincere and civil; shall have no reason to complain of our manner to them, when we perform the easy task of pointing out their errors. But all falsehood, unfairness, malevolence, impertinence, and folly, we shall drive back from ourselves, and brush away from our science. t
* We beg the authors of the various enormities we have enumerated as mere specimens, to consider themselves as not having yet actually stood in our pillory.
t Names shall on no account be pinned to outrages, unless surrendered by the delinquents themselves, in any mode of clear and unequivocal voluntary publicity.
xxx INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT.
Before any impartial person joins our enemies in bestowing upon us the epithets of presumptuous, severe, merciless, cruel, or any other of the list which delinquents always have in readiness for a well-deserved retribution, let him call to mind, the long and heavy account of aggression which we have to settle, and he will not only not grudge us our revenche, but cheer us, if we bear us well in the contest. It is likely, that our punitory establishment will deter incipient delinquents ; but old offenders we do not expect to reform. The philosophers of the punch-school especially are committed, and bound to proceed with their refutation of our induction-with their "arguments with a vengeance," and their personalities, till their fabric of folly is completed ; and "fool and aw-phrenologist" shall be held by universal consent to be convertible terms. *
But we must not conclude without a word of expostulation with men of real scientific habits, who know what induction is, and can appreciate a system built upon that basis. The sooner they cease to scorn, and begin to learn, the better for themselves. We tell them that they do neither well nor wisely to neglect phrenology-that they act absurdly to prejudge it. We tell them-disdain us as they may-that it is to be disgracefully behind the science of the age, to live in Chinese-like contempt of an inquiry which deeply engages a number of men in no way their inferiors, either in philosophical acuteness, or powers or habits of just reasoning. The inquiry is too far advanced to make this insolence of office longer safe. The system is greatly too near its certain destination of being deemed the most important discovery of modern times, to leave it prudent for even the greatest philosopher to entrench himself against it in his imagined strong-hold, where, if he remain, he must soon make a very ridiculous figure, and run the risk of being a by-word to every school-boy, as one of those who, in
* Drunkenness, as an excuse, will on no account be listened to.
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the nineteenth century, opposed the progress of the true science of mind.
One sign of the times is worth the regard of the most securely established philosopher. The doctrine, which he unwisely despises, is rapidly taking hold of the reason, and delighting the imaginations of the rising generation. They have no exclusive theories which they love better than truth ; no philosophic dignities and reputations in jeopardy ; no pride to be offended by the success of a system which they have not committed themselves by contemning. Phrenology is rife among the young men. They discuss it in their friendships, study it practically in themselves and in each other, debate it in their societies, and evince their opinion of the truth of its principles by their votes. Let their philosophical instructors remember, that these youths will soon be men, who will look back on Alma Mater with a contempt for her doting metaphysics, which will turn their sons from her gates to the schools of the phrenologists.
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